WHAT IS THINKIUM
By Owot Samuel March 8,2022.
Thinkium is an all-around public blockchain network, which achieves unlimited scalability at a linear cost by running through a multi-layer multi-chain structure.
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Holders : 10000+
PoS mining 50%
Ecological Development Fund 30%
Early investors 10%
Founding team 10%
Thinkium takes unique design of a multi-layer multi-chain structure, which can theoretically achieve unlimited scalability and facilitate Internet level large-scale applications through the separation of subchains from the main chain, inheritance of child-chains from their parent-chain, intra-chain sharding, and cross-chain communications. Thinkium’s current TPS has reached 100,000+.
In Thinkium, various P2P networks are built for consensus protocols on different chains or layers , while the integration of structural and non-structural P2P networks can facilitate efficiency improvement. Structural P2P networks can be used to reduce redundancy and improve efficiency, meanwhile transmissions via non-structural P2P networks can ensure system stability.
EVM Virtual Machine
The thinkium public chain is fully compatible with Ethereum EVM virtual machine. Any contract edited by Ethereum EVM can run on the thinkium public chain. The following introduction is quoted from Ethereum EVM
Introduction to Ethereum virtual machine EVM
EVM is executed as a stack machine with 1024 item depths. Each item is a 256 bit word, which is selected to facilitate the use of 256 bit Cryptography (such as keccak-256 hash or secp256k1 signature).
During execution, EVM maintains a transient * memory * (as a word addressed byte array) that does not persist between transactions.
However, the contract does contain a Merkle Patricia * storage * tree (as a word addressable word array) associated with the relevant account and part of the global state.
Compile the smart contract bytecode and execute the opcode as the digital EVM, such as standard stack operations XOR, and, add, sub, etc. The EVM also implements many specific blockchain stack operations, such as' address', 'balance', 'keccak256', 'blockhash', etc.
From ledger to state machine
The analogy of "distributed ledger" is usually used to describe blockchains such as bitcoin, which uses basic cryptographic tools to realize a decentralized currency. Cryptocurrency behaves like "normal" currency because the rules specify what can and cannot be done to modify the ledger. For example, a bitcoin address cannot spend more bitcoins than it previously received. These rules support all transactions on bitcoin and many other blockchains.
Although Ethereum has its own native cryptocurrency (ether), which follows almost exactly the same intuitive rules, it also supports a more powerful function: smart contract. For this more complex feature, a more complex analogy is needed. Ethereum is not a distributed ledger, but a distributed state machine. Ethereum's state is a big data structure, which not only contains all accounts and balances, but also a * machine state *, which can change between blocks according to a set of predefined rules, and can execute any machine code. EVM defines specific rules for changing state from block to block.
Ethereum state transition function
EVM behaves like a mathematical function: given an input, it produces a deterministic output. Therefore, it is very helpful to more formally describe Ethereum as having * * state transition function * *:
Actor-based Parallel Processing Model
The Actor-based parallel processing model greatly improves the execution efficiency of tasks, enables Thinkium to carry large transactions more efficiently, supports the operation of complex applications with large numbers of users, and paves the foundation for the business projects of blockchain, which were originally limited by technical maturity.
The Actor model allows complex logic to be implemented on a multi-chain system in an asynchronous and lockless manner. In this model, transactions involving a set of accounts are divided into multiple steps in the form of messages. Each message is received by a unique main subject and executed by the corresponding chain. A transaction is completed only after all the messages have been executed.
There are two types of messages: external messages and relay messages. The external message is created by an account signed with a private key. Similar to messages in Ethereum, relay messages are generated by an account that executes the send command during execution. The major difference is that the execution of the relay message is asynchronous in the Thinkium model, but synchronous in Ethereum. Therefore, messages in the Thinkium model support cross-chain propagation.