Great question! I spent much of my home, school and work life ‘not allowed’ to ask questions so I get it. The work situation you describe breaks my heart because nothing has changed in the last 30+ years.
Something I learned to do as a question substitute was to observe others closely — with my question(s) in mind. One of my eternal questions has been “Why do you want me to do it like that?”. I discovered that the explanation was often evident in their behaviour. I could see the truth in their eyes.
Whatever I saw, I’d look beyond it to its source. The most common thing I saw was fear. The source of the fear was usually a boss, so I had an idea of what I needed to do. Because THAT person’s position on the something I was being asked to do was typically clear. I knew I had to do work that was consistent with that position.
The sad truth is that people don’t want you to ask questions because they don’t want you to challenge them in any way. They don’t have the bandwidth or the resilience to deal with it. They’re in survival mode, overloaded at work and at home. So for them, any work, even if it’s not the quality you know you could make it with more information, is better than no work.
I truly hope you find or create some fulfilling work sooner than later! All the best with that… and surviving where you currently are.