I would assume it’s because California doesn’t have a required waiting period while Utah does. It doesn’t do much good to test a patient’s certainty levels and see whether or not a patient’s mind changes if the patient only has one appointment and are asked if they are sure about the procedure right before having it. It seems like the study was trying to see if certainty levels shifted due to the waiting period (do they start uncertain then continue to make appointments and gain certainty? Do they go in certain but waver once they think about it for a few days? Do they go in certain and stay certain?) Utah, however, has the longest mandatory waiting period- 72 hours. They can conduct the initial survey at the first appointment to judge how certain the patient feels at that time, then see if they come back 72+ hours later for the procedure and then complete a follow up survey. Personally if I had conducted the study I would probably have tested both groups and had the no waiting period group (California) be the control, but I did not conduct the survey.