Your stupidity amazes me. Let me write so a child can understand it, not you of course (your ignorance is locked in), but rather a 4th grader who might be tempted to trust you.
We do not have year by year temperature data for 4 billion years, we have it for about 11 thousand as the articles I cited have made clear. This might be extended back another 60 thousand years or so as methods of studying the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores and sediments improve. The year by year record shows that this is the fastest recorded year by year temperature rise. Similarly we have decadal estimates dating back about 500,000 years and the last 40 years seems to have shown the most rapid temperature per decade. Prior to that where there are proxies they are only good for centennial or millennial estimates.
If the atmospheric gases absorb 23% of incoming radiation they also absorb 23% of outgoing radiation. This percentage increases as the proportion of the absorbing gases in the atmosphere increases. This leads to an increase in global temperature which also increases the proportion of water vapour and methane in the atmosphere. Some of the energy is lost to space but not all hence any increase in the proportion of greenhouse gases keeps heat in the system warming atmosphere, ocean and land.
Stefan-Bolzmann concerns itself with the behaviour of ideal bodies, not the complex multilayered and chaotic system that is the Earth. If your belief about Stefan-Bolzmann was correct then the Earth would already be an ice planet. Do the maths yourself — Oh, what am I saying, you cannot.