“ China is a different story with 58 attack submarines — almost all loud diesels limited in range and speed — which will grow to between 69 and 78 by the end of the decade.”
I did chuckle at “loud diesels”.. seriously? Diesel electrics, especially the Kilo class which China has a reasonable amount of have long been feared by western navies as when they are running on batteries are a black hole in the water. Yes they are noisy when snorkling, and yes they can be hunted to extinction but this takes a huge ASW effort. And their newer designs are superior to the Kilo in many ways.