pain and boredom
Arthur Schopenhauer: The Two Things That Stop Us From Being Happy
Zat Rana
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What Schopenhauer might have missed is a more sophisticated understanding of “will” (or volition?) than the philosopher’s of his age were able to articulate.

Industrialization was well served by the autistic philosophy of Bentham utility (i.e., later, Freudian) maximization principle. It is conveniently consistent with the reduction of the lower classes to automatons — programmable to performa pseudo-mechanical tasks via operant conditioning.

As it turns out, people are more complex. They have conative drives that, when suppressed or stifled, cause dysfunction.