To study how pioneers introduce a new order of things, we chose to focus on the built environment because of the opportunity it affords for audacious innovation. Long a laggard in the innovation landscape, the built environment today is suddenly again a target for change. Just as Renaissance visionaries like Leonardo da Vinci and Christopher Wren combined applied mathematics and philosophy to introduce revolutionary advances that transformed the size, span, and strength of buildings, modern-day visionaries are recognizing the potential to transform what we build — and how we build it — by leveraging advances in materials and information technologies. Buildings and cities, they argue, can be smarter, greener, more efficient, and more livable. And many have begun to believe that there are business opportunities to be exploited in making them that way. Today, as we explain in chapter 2, these activities are called the smart-city industry.