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Apartheid (South African English: /əˈpɑːrteɪd/; Afrikaans pronunciation: [ɐˈparthɛit]) was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991, when it was abolished.[1] The country’s first multiracial elections under a universal franchise were held three years later in 1994.[2] Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.[3] Prior to the 1940s, some vestiges of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black South Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment.[4][5] Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party during the country’s 1948 general elections.[6] Apartheid was also enforced in South West Africa until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990.[7

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