Machine Learning: Types of Classification

In machine learning and statistics, classification is a supervised learning approach in which the computer program learns from the data input given to it and then uses this learning to classify new observation. This data set may simply be bi-class (like identifying whether the person is male or female or that the mail is spam or non-spam) or it may be multi-class too. Some examples of classification problems are: speech recognition, handwriting recognition, bio metric identification, document classification etc.

Here we have the types of classification algorithms in Machine Learning:

1. Linear Classifiers: Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes Classifier

2. Support Vector Machines

3. Decision Trees

4. Boosted Trees

5. Random Forest

6. Neural Networks

7. Nearest Neighbor

Naive Bayes Classifier (Generative Learning Model) :

It is a classification technique based on Bayes’ Theorem with an assumption of independence among predictors. In simple terms, a Naive Bayes classifier assumes that the presence of a particular feature in a class is unrelated to the presence of any other feature. Even if these features depend on each other or upon the existence of the other features, all of these properties independently contribute to the probability. Naive Bayes model is easy to build and particularly useful for very large data sets. Along with simplicity, Naive Bayes is known to outperform even highly sophisticated classification methods.

**Logistic Regression (Predictive Learning Model) :**

It is a statistical method for analysing a data set in which there are one or more independent variables that determine an outcome. The outcome is measured with a dichotomous variable (in which there are only two possible outcomes). The goal of logistic regression is to find the best fitting model to describe the relationship between the dichotomous characteristic of interest (dependent variable = response or outcome variable) and a set of independent (predictor or explanatory) variables.

**Decision Trees:**

Decision tree builds classification or regression models in the form of a tree structure. It breaks down a data set into smaller and smaller subsets while at the same time an associated decision tree is incrementally developed. The final result is a tree with decision nodes and leaf nodes. A decision node has two or more branches and a leaf node represents a classification or decision. The topmost decision node in a tree which corresponds to the best predictor called root node. Decision trees can handle both categorical and numerical data.

**Random Forest:**

Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks, that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes (classification) or mean prediction (regression) of the individual trees. Random decision forests correct for decision trees’ habit of over fitting to their training set.

**Neural Network:**

A neural network consists of units (neurons), arranged in layers, which convert an input vector into some output. Each unit takes an input, applies a (often nonlinear) function to it and then passes the output on to the next layer. Generally the networks are defined to be feed-forward: a unit feeds its output to all the units on the next layer, but there is no feedback to the previous layer. Weightings are applied to the signals passing from one unit to another, and it is these weightings which are tuned in the training phase to adapt a neural network to the particular problem at hand.

**Nearest Neighbour:**

The k-nearest-neighbours algorithm is a classification algorithm, and it is supervised: it takes a bunch of labelled points and uses them to learn how to label other points. To label a new point, it looks at the labelled points closest to that new point (those are its nearest neighbours), and has those neighbours vote, so whichever label the most of the neighbours have is the label for the new point (the “k” is the number of neighbours it checks).