Interaction with Information II: Annotation and Reflection(DUE: 9/20/2016)
Using annotations in a hyper-smart way
Marshall, C. Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation, Proc ACM Hypertext 1998, 40–49.
Kumiyo Nakakoji, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Shingo Takada, and Brent N. Reeves. Two-dimensional spatial positioning as a means for reflection in design, Proc DIS 2000, 145–154.
Webb, A., Kerne, A., Promoting reflection and interpretation in education: curating rich bookmarks as information composition, Proc ACM Creativity and Cognition, 2013, 53–62.
These three papers I am going to introduce is a guarantee mind-storm for the way you think of annotations before.
- Toward an ecology of hypertext annotation
Dr.Catherine Marshall the leading pioneer in the hypertext research field is trying to build a ecology for hypertext annotation, which I would rather call it hyper-notation.
In order to achieve this goal, she characterized annotation according to a set dimensions, situated a long-term study of annotator and then developed a new ecology of hypertext annotation.
With regarding to the dimensions, she explored:
forms: marginalia→ metadata
explicitness: explicit→ tacit
annotation as writing vs as reading: de Certeau’s readers → annotators are writers.
Hyperextensive reading involves the link
following, fragmentation, and repetition we associate with
hypertext; extensive reading is the sort of reading we
associate with day-to-day analytic activities →4 a broad
reading of many documents at a time; and intensive reading
is a deep engagement (possibly repeated or ritual) with a
persistency: permanent — — → transient
privacy: Published — → institutional — → workgroup — → personal
Based on the dimensions she explored, she conducted a long-term and series field study on how senior college student generally design, keep and retrieve annotations, which leads to her conclusion: a informal personal way for making annotations more feasible. And a n-way consensus is particularly important when degree is small enough and the annotations is marked as important by emphasis remark.
2. Two-dimensional spatial positioning as a means for reflection in design
The task of this study is to build a interactive system using two-dimensional positioning to reflect the object in early phase design. Using writing as a case.
Within this study a name was brought up repeatedly: Donald Alan Schön who was a philosopher and professor in urban planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed the concept of reflective practice.
They firstly proposed a fact which is: design should be as a reflective conversation with the materials of reflection.
The Problem is: many existing computer based design support tools ignores the fluidity and tentative exploration of the designer.
Then they gave their solution:
Case study: Why pencil and paper are still drawing artists’ interest to use them given so many computer based tools?
Answers: 1.directness: it is indirect to interact with Computer than with freehand sketching tools like pencils.
2.commitment: The levels of abstraction on Computer is very limited
After all: in order to support a design in the early phase, the system must provide a designer with a representational means for reflection that is direct and requires minimum commitment.
Argument: two dimensional positioning is as useful for writing as sketching for architectural design.
How it performs:
ART allow designers to be engaged in reflection in and on action.
Reflection on: on a upper level — — → Position as a state
Reflection in: on a lower level where more details lie. — — → Positioning as an action
Externalization in Design: it tracks and records our thoughts in design process.
It solves two problems: 1. how to make it easier for designers to express what they want to express with directness and minimum commitment 2. how to make it easier for designers to perceive what they want to express with directness and minimum commitment.
This ART system study I see is more like an a expansion of Marshall’s ecology which perfectly addressed that one question proposed by Dr.Marshall:
gathering these varied personal annotations.
3. Promoting Reflection and Interpretation in Education: Curating Rich Bookmarks as Information Composition
This work I see is like a perfect implementation and also an advancement of the previous two works.
Within this study, Dr.Kerne developed a metadata model called Rich Bookmark, and an information curator and displayer called InfoComposer. And using this tool they conducted a series meaningful research on how it can amplifies student’s reflections and interpretations on course: The Design Process: Creativity and Entrepreneurship.
After all, it appears that using InfoComposer can sharply increases student’s creativity on design.
As it said: It helped students engage in cycles of collecting and organizing information, leading to more novel and varied ideas. Students made decisions about what to collect through reflections upon their information compositions. Students derived new interpretations while exploring metadata and organizing rich bookmarks.
Conclusions: In sum, these three papers developed a three-phase conceptual model to application development process. Dr.Marshall proposed the primitive model and built a system for using annotations. The Japanese researchers inherited the idea of hypertext annotations and use it to amplify the talk-back in early phase design. And Dr.Kerne’s work combined those two as Rich Bookmark in InfoComposer helped students increase their reflections and interpretations in design.