Should you give credit to competitors?

Earlier this year, I read an inspiring recollection (by Sydney Brenner) of a grand scientific milestone: the elucidation of the genetic code. How do DNA nucleotides code for the amino-acid sequence of proteins? This fundamental question had captivated numerous scientists, including Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner. The punchline of this wonderful interview/recollection is a magnanimous act by Francis Crick:

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Francis Crick

In August 1961, more than 5,000 scientists came to Moscow for five days of research talks at the International Congress of Biochemistry. A couple of days in, Matt Meselson, a friend of Crick’s, told him the news: The first word of the genetic code had been solved, by somebody else. In a small Friday afternoon talk at the Congress, in a mostly empty room, Marshall Nirenberg — an American biochemist and a complete unknown to Crick and Brenner — reported that he had fed a single repeated letter into a system for making proteins, and had produced a protein made of repeating units of just one of the amino acids. The first word of the code was solved. …

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