Photography

Photography is an art of taking and processing photographs.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography) and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

The word “photography” was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), “light”and γραφή (graphé) “representation by means of lines” or “drawing”, together meaning “drawing with light.

Types of Photography

Photographic work can be divided into dozens of categories, many with lots of sub-categories. The following list describes some common types of photography.

Aerial

From a plane, helicopter, balloon, or other airborne device.

Adventure, Action

Adventure sports, daring feats, etc.

Amateur

Any type of photography practiced by non-professionals.

Animal, Pet

Pets and their relationships with humans. Note that the human content is often as important as the animal.

Architecture, Real Estate

The art of making property appear attractive. Often involves panoramic photography.

Artistic

Photography in which creative composition is the goal.

Astrophotography

Space photography, through a telescope.

Aura

A controversial type of photography which some claim can photograph a person’s aura. Often confused with Kirlian photography.

Black & White

Not simply photography without color, black and white photography explores shapes, tones, and textures. Shadows and highlights become much more important.

Camera Phone

“Convenience” photography using a mobile phone’s built-in camera. While not the best quality, camera phones have opened a new world of spontaneous, on-the-spot photo opportunities.

Commercial

Product shots, advertising, etc.

Digi scoping

Photography through a telescope or binoculars.

Documentary

Journalism, Events, Historical, Political, etc.

Event

Concerts, parties, festivals, weddings, etc.

Forensic

Police and legal photography.

Infrared

Photography in which the recording medium is sensitive to infrared light rather than the normal visible light spectrum.

Large Format

For use on posters, billboards, etc.

Point and Shoot Photography (How to create incredible photographs with whatever camera you have in your pocket)

Setting/Locale- think of some cool locations that you enjoy, (beach, woods, mall, etc.)

Locations-choice is one of the main things of taking a good photo.

Check backgrounds carefully-While choosing a setting you want to choose a background that isn’t wild, like a background that is simple but still breathtaking.

Lighting-The sun should be behind you, if not it will be bright, the best time to take a photo is an hour after sunrise or an hour before sunset.

Framing and Composition-Framing and composition must do with where you put the subject in your photo frame. The basic rule when shooting portraits is to try to fill the frame with your subject, leaving just enough extra to include a bit of their environment around the subject. The closer and tighter you are to the frame the better the photograph will look.

Smiling-When you smile for the photo it looks fake and doesn’t look as natural as if you are laughing, tell them a joke or something and a laugh is more natural than a pose/ smile.

Body- And make sure you don’t cut off all their body you don’t want them to look like they just have a head.

While the popularity of some creative photography techniques rises and falls, there are some photo tricks that continue to stand the test of time. Here, are some hand-picked 6 classic pictures that you should know how to make — and explain how to do just that.

1. How to make a fake tilt and shift photo

Tilt-shift lenses are expensive. Brilliant, but expensive. Their moving elements enable photographers to correct perspective distortion in architecture photography and allow landscape photographers and studio photographers to extend the depth of field across a scene or an object in order to make more of it appear sharp.

However, there’s a seemingly insatiable appetite for using these lenses in the opposite manner for selective focus photography and filmmaking. Whether it’s creating a sharp portrait that’s surrounded by copious amounts of blur, or making a city or landscape look like a miniature model (the technique used for the opening credits to the BBC’s Sherlock), there’s plenty of creative mileage in a tilt-shift lens.

But as we said, man, they’re not cheap.

You can of course hire a tilt-shift lens, although it’s worth getting used to the manual features of your camera first. Tilt-shift lenses are manual focus only, but the magnification feature of your camera’s Live View mode makes this easy, enabling you to check the focus point is positioned precisely within the scene. Metering is also best handled manually before you adjust the tilt or shift controls of the lens, too.

Another alternative is to fake the tilt-shift miniature effect in Photoshop. This is a simple process of applying a gradient blur, and can produce a result that many viewers will be unable to discern from the real thing. It works best when the photo you want to add the tilt-shift effect to has been shot from a raised viewpoint on a bright day, as the angle and contrast make for a more authentic ‘toy town’ look.

2. How to make a forced perspective photo

At first glance they look like snapshots, but the best forced perspective photographs are well-planned pictures that can be both creatively rewarding and generate plenty of shares and likes on social media, if you’re looking for that sort of thing.

The idea is simple: a subject (usually a person) is carefully positioned so that they appear to be merging or interacting with an object in the background — or vice versa — to create an optical illusion. The classic holiday snap of someone appearing to hold up the Leaning Tower of Pisa was just the beginning; now it’s all booked bubble blowing and ‘man eats car’.

Technically, there’s not a lot to it. It’s more about spotting the opportunities and having your camera prepped to make the most of them (think reasonably small aperture and fast shutter speed to freeze movement). In terms of lens choice, a wide-angle lens will exaggerate the distance between the foreground and the background. Objects close to the camera will look much bigger than those in the distance — a useful trick if you want to make someone in the foreground appear to be holding someone in the background in the palm of their hand.

A longer focal length will compress a scene and make the elements appear closer together, a good technique for making objects appear on the same plane.

Working in Aperture Priority, you’ll need to use an aperture that provides enough depth of field to ensure there’s enough sharpness from the foreground to the background. You may need to increase the ISO to ensure a fast-enough shutter speed for sharp results. Making sure the objects that are being combined are being lit similarly also produces a more convincing effect.

3. How to make a long exposure landscape photo

The long exposure landscape photo has become a modern classic. Exposures typically last anywhere from 30 seconds to 5 minutes, with the result being that moving objects are rendered as smooth blurs — and can even vanish completely. Stormy seas can be rendered as silky as milk while locations bustling with tourists appear eerily empty.

To achieve such epic exposures in daylight requires the use of a strong Neutral Density filter. These range from around 3 stops to 10 stops in strength, with the higher-rated ND filters blocking progressively more light. For example, a scene requiring an exposure of 1/6 second at f/16 without a filter would need an exposure of approximately 2min 50sec at f/16 with a 10-stop ND filter.

In addition to a strong ND filter, you’ll need a tripod, a lockable remote release, a way of calculating the length of the exposure (there are plenty of smartphone photo apps that can do this for you) and something to block the viewfinder eyepiece with. Some cameras have a built-in viewfinder blind, while others come with an accessory that slips over the eyepiece in place of the rubber surround.

You need to block the viewfinder for very long exposures even if you’re using the camera in Live View mode. if you don’t, light leakage can occur and you’ll end up with odd-looking glow marks on the final image.

As a final touch, many photographers convert long exposure landscapes to black and white and add a square crop for that ‘fine-art’ look.

4. How to make a digital infrared photo

Infrared photography can add a ghostly appearance to images shot on bright, sunny days. As a result it’s an effect that’s particularly suited to photos that feature Gothic architecture, castles, abandon buildings and ancient monuments. But it’s a technique that’s just at home with portraits and wildlife photography.

The majority of digital camera sensors include an infrared blocking filter for standard photography, and this needs to be removed in order to be able to take infrared pictures. Converting a camera to infrared like this means that you won’t be able to use it for regular full colour photography, so you’ll need to adapt a spare camera.

Not all of us happen to have an old digital SLR knocking around or the spare cash to convert it into an infrared camera. But there is an alternative: using an infrared filter. This screws onto the front of the lens and blocks all light bar infrared. IR filters are very dark though, which means long exposure times — they’re useless for taking infrared photos of moving subjects. You won’t be able to see anything through the viewfinder either, so it’s best to compose and manually focus before adding the filter. You’ll also need to spend a little time converting the image later.

If you don’t want to buy a filter, you can always learn how to add an infrared effect in Photoshop. You can try this technique with any image, although if you take a photo with a fake infrared look in mind you’re more likely to end up with a successful result.

Bibliography

http://petapixel.com/2014/12/01/6-types-photos-know-make/

http://carlimacdonald0409.wixsite.com/rio-pousada/single-post/2015/11/10/Point-and-Shoot-Photography-How-to-create-incredible-photographs-with-whatever-camera-you-have-in-your-pocket

learn how to add an infrared effect in Photoshop

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