Issue 1: Data bloat
The current design of blockchains, requires replaying all data from transaction 0. This requires full chain data to be stored. This is how to achieve the current accurate UTXOs or State. Every transaction created needs to be stored, shared, and computed. The current distribution mechanism for this is blocks.
The new design creates a single zero knowledge proof and a merkle path to be stored for processing.
Issue 2: On-chain data
The concept of blockchain as storage has become more prevalent. Blockchains are being used for on-chain storage. This further increases issue 1, but also compounds by adding execution overhead. On-chain data is specifically designed for proofs and not off-chain data.
Execution is decoupled from on-chain execution. Execution zero knowledge proofs are created and stored on-chain. Execution (such as the EVM) is scaled off-chain, secured on-chain.
Issue 3: Execution scalability
Blockchain(s) are limited by throughput, each node has to replay execution to confirm state. Execution is only as fast as the slowest consensus joining node.
Execution decoupled from on-chain execution, allows for off-chain execution scalability. Verifiable computing (zero knowledge proofs) allow for asynchronous processing.
Issue 4: Network scalability
With execution scalability and data bloat addressed, the next scalability vector is network propagation. Block size and P2P propagation increase fork frequency as either size or distance increase.
This led to the creation of a new type of Node. Network Nodes are deployed as a first point of contact for transactions and blocks. Network Nodes communicate via a seperate protocol set using short codes for blocks and transactions to minimize network overhead, with a request on requirement principal.
Snark Network is a new design for blockchains allowing for single proof chain sizes, off-chain execution scaling, proof-only chain data, and first point network routing. These four principals address the current scaling issues in blockchains while adhering to the deterministic nature of blockchains.
The following series of articles will detail the design, tech, and deliverables.