Snark: Whitepaper v0.194

The Snark Whitepaper has been updated to v0.194. The current paper is available at


  • Trustless Computing: Explaining the abstract implementation of trustless computing
  • On-chain proof: Establishing that the blockchain is meant for on chain proofs and not on chain data
  • Trustless stateless (E)VM: Scaling VM execution off chain in a trusted environment
  • Consensus first protocol: Snark redesign of built in consensus
  • Eventually Consistent: Explaining the Snark DAG transaction chain
  • Finalization: How to address transaction finality
  • First Class State: Incorporating concurrent states into a single state engine
  • Economic Abstraction: How concurrent states solve the issue of abstraction

The Whitepaper is currently a mix of theoretical and practical implementations. We will continue to use it as our primary roadmap to allow execution on the vision.