The authors stated that upon galvanostatic polarization of the symmetric copper cell Na metal is plated at the positive cell terminal (cathode). Difficult to believe. Most likely Na metal is plated at the negative cell terminal while the electrolyte is decomposed at the positive cell terminal (cathode).
I believe the first manuscript from the same authors (also on EES) gives some hints on the second…

This is a plausible hypothesis and I agree: in fact if what the authors are showing is the breakdown (charge) and “reformation” (discharge) of electrolyte that would be pretty great.

Certainly a more palatable explanation with respect to thermodynamics.

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