Italian and other immigrant populations at times.
The rise driven by prohibition legislation mainly and the resulting violence escalated even after prohibition was repealed because the network created diversified. The war on drugs has had the same effect. Note monies flowing into real estate and banks and corrupting policing and the justice systems in some of the largest cities in our country. New crime networks that will not easily be undone and continue to overwhelm and destroy our inner city society are now migrating to suburban and rural communities as well.