Horizontal wind shear can also over-stress aircraft structures.

This would be rather difficult to accomplish in the atmosphere. Horizontal shears of that magnitude would only exist in tornadoes. If you’re talking about a sudden change in horizontal wind with height, or vertical shear, I’m not aware of any scenario that could cause a Vne exceedance for anything but the flimsiest airplanes. You would also need a unique atmospheric profile. There would have to be an incredible temperature inversion at the top of the boundary layer and a strong low-level jet stream just above the boundary layer. Extreme inversions occur in the polar regions, mountain valleys, and in areas of heavy snow cover on calm nights. It is harder to couple that with a strong low-level jet, but it does happen in the Plains states as warm advection begins after a winter snowstorm. You would then have to get your Piper Cub up to full speed in the shallow boundary layer and then penetrate the inversion into the low-level jet. If the jet stream is blowing at 30-40 knots, you could go well over Vne and maybe convert your plane into a lawn dart, assuming drag didn’t slow you down before the wing could fly off. Above the boundary layer, strong temperature inversions don’t exist, so even though the actual winds are stronger, extreme vertical shear doesn’t develop. At some point depending on atmospheric stability, the shear overturns and diffuses as breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. Your passengers would be displeased with having the fillings shaken out of their teeth, but you won’t hit Vne.

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