What Comes After Democracy?

Dan Stern

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Total determinism has been advocated by Laplace, a French mathematician who made an thought experiment of a daemon capable of knowing all the positions, masses and speed of all the particles in the universe. This daemon supposedly could calculate the state of the universe at any moment.

This was proven utterly wrong by Poincarré who showed that the equations governing only 3 particles in mutual gravitational attraction did not converge : an infinitesimal change in position / speed / mass would result in totally different dynamics. This is the theory of chaos.