Telephone System Engineers
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology provides a cost-effective solution to achieve sustainable energy supply in wireless networks, where WPT-enabled energy nodes (ENs) can charge wireless devices (WDs) remotely without interruption to the use. However, in a heterogeneous WPT network with distributed ENs and WDs, some WDs may quickly deplete their batteries due to the lack of timely wireless power supply by the ENs, thus resulting in short network operating lifetime. In this paper, we exploit frequency diversity in a broadband WPT network and study the distributed charging control by ENs to maximize network lifetime. In particular, we propose a practical voting-based distributed charging control framework where each WD simply estimates the broadband channel, casts its vote(s) for some strong sub-channel(s) and sends to the ENs along with its battery state information, based on which the ENs independently allocate their transmit power over the sub-channels without the need of centralized control. Under this framework, we aim to design lifetime-maximizing power allocation and efficient voting-based feedback methods. Towards this end, we first derive the general expression of the expected lifetime of a WPT network and draw the general design principles for lifetime-maximizing charging control. Based on the analysis, we then propose a distributed charging control protocol with voting-based feedback, where the power allocated to sub-channels at each EN is a function of the weighted sum vote received from all WDs. Besides, the number of votes cast by a WD and the weight of each vote are related to its current battery state. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed charging control protocol could significantly increase the network lifetime under stringent transmit power constraint in a broadband WPT network.
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