GitHub Transformers: Tools & Workflows

GitHub began as a tool for hobbyists and evolved with organizations and on-premise enterprise products into a tool for professionals.

We’re going to share 9 key insights from GitHub’s annual Tools & Workflows survey, welcoming debate about “learn git v. less git,” text editor and IDE popularity, and shining a light onto some blind spots.

One finding, in particular, “Professionals solve their problems with support from human peers” surfaces a critical discovery about human behavior: the distinguishing factor in solving challenges getting started with Git and GitHub is that professionals have greater access to people who can help them solve their problems.


  1. People’s use of GitHub changes over time. Respondents were largely drawn to GitHub for open source, but their primary use of the tools transitioned for work.

What we care about and why

We’re able to answer many descriptive questions about GitHub use (e.g. whether people use the command line or the client to make a commit) by analyzing events from our user database. Our database, however, provides no insight into what our users do and the tools they use outside of GitHub, so to learn about these things, we have to ask and listen.

The descriptive statistics presented here summarize raw data and depict what is happening among a subset of our users, giving us insight into phenomena we care about. It’s important to know the number of people using particular tools, so that we can make informed decisions about how our product should work with others. Organizations like Stack Overflow have produced reports packed with data that illustrate trends, but our population is distinct from theirs.

Understanding tool choice, in addition to GitHub use, is helping our teams to better understand and serve our users’ needs. We expanded our inquiry beyond tool brand and type to get a better understanding of processes, behaviors, and human motivations driving tool choice and experience:

  1. Who are these people by segment? (professional v. hobbyist users)

A note on survey recruitment, the survey was delivered through:

  • an in-app popover (logged-in/logged out)

The following plot shows the distribution of account ages among our survey respondents (in blue), compared to the distribution of a random draw of 10,000 active users from the db. New account creators are clearly severely underrepresented in this data set, while long-term tenured users (3 years +) are overrepresented.

Note: This density plot shows the estimated probability distribution of account ages by groups. Similar to a smoothed histogram, the points on the curves higher on the Y axis indicate values that occur more frequently.

To account for disparity and bias in the respondents, we subset the survey questions and sent an email with a link to the shorter survey to 90,000 new account creators organized by segments of 30-, 60-, and 90-days of tenure (read more about the NAC effort here). We learned that reaching new account creators from within the application is challenging (they spend little to no time within the app), so we have a blind spot in this data.

Professional v. Hobbyist Users

For this report, we segmented respondents according to their self-reported primary use of GitHub into two main groups/audiences, asking:

Q. What do you primarily use GitHub for today?

  1. Professionals – People who primarily use GitHub for their job (36%).

To illustrate the ways in which these populations are similar and distinct, we analyze and visualize responses according to these personas throughout this post.

1. People’s use of GitHub transforms over time

We asked respondents:

Q. What originally brought you to GitHub?

as well as:

Q. What do you primarily use GitHub for today?

The following plot depicts the differences in what brought people to GitHub originally (3 years ago) vs. what keeps them on GitHub today. Exploring OSS is a large plurality of the original draw, but it falls behind personal projects and work today.


  • 47% of respondents cited a different primary use for GitHub today than when they originally joined.

A note on “Transformers”

We looked more closely at the population who signed up as hobbyists (for OSS or personal projects or a class) and have transformed into professional (e.g. primarily for a job) users to see what we could learn about their behaviors and trajectory:

  • 73% of current professionals started out as hobbyists.

Open text quotes:

Release management with SVN SUCKS. I needed a better way.

Wanted to Open Source a project at the time, this was what I stumbled upon.

Developer colleagues from work, who were using it for work. I didn’t have use for it back then as I wasn’t working a tech job (so: “my job” wouldn’t be accurate because it didn’t require me to know about GitHub).

2. Large majorities use VCS and Text Editors.

To better understand people and their tools, we asked:

Q. Which of the following are absolutely necessary to your current software development process?

Note: We use Cleveland dot plots to show point estimates from multiple response questions. Respondents could select more than one response, so the estimates for each group may sum to more than 1.

The Y axis is always ordered based on the frequency of responses among professionals.


  • VCS is an essential part of the development toolkit for 84% of the entire sample, including 90% of professionals. This is partly a function of our sample being selected from VCS (e.g. GitHub) users.

3. Text editor by brand popularity

The largest set of professional text editor users (75%) choose Sublime, Vim, Atom. 75% of all respondents indicated that they consider a text editor to be an essential tool. We looked at the distribution of primary text editors by brand and audience type:

Note: Throughout this post we use grouped bar charts to show point estimates for questions with single response options.

For each group (here, Hobbyists and Professionals), the length of the bars sum to 1. Also, note that the X axis is truncated to make differences at the lower end of the scale clearer.


  • Professionals are significantly more likely to be using Sublime Text than hobbyists (38% v. 31%), as well as TextMate (3% v. 1%).

4. IDE by brand popularity

51% of respondents consider an IDE essential to their development process. We asked these people which IDEs they use, allowing them to select as many as they wanted. IntelliJ is the most commonly used IDE by GitHub users.


  • Among professional IDE users, IntelliJ is the most common (37%), followed somewhat distantly by Eclipse (24%) and Visual Studio (20%).

5. “Team Text Editor” vs. “Team IDE”

To a greater extent than other tool pairings, text editors and IDES are substitute goods: virtually everyone uses at least one (97%), but comparatively few consider both to be essential (29%).

Out of the 10 tool types we asked about in the closed answer options, only the use of IDEs and text editors was negatively correlated ($$ \rho $$ = -.4), people tend to choose a “Team.”

IDE users appear to have a general preference for GUIs, including when interacting with GitHub.


  • Team IDE is more likely than Team Text Editor use a GUI at least some of the time when using GitHub (66% vs. 55%).

6. Native Git users are distinct

78% of respondents use Git today, but most used another VCS system prior to joining GitHub.


  • 35% of respondents are Git natives (started using version control with Git). The most common prior VCS is Subversion, with 47%. This pattern is consistent domestically and internationally.

7. Exclusive GUI users are distinct

Hobbyists are more likely than professionals to rely exclusively on a GUI (6% vs. 2%). However, both groups are equally likely to report using a GUI at least some of the time (57–58%).

Similarities – GUI and exclusive CLI users are remarkably similar:

  • They have identical account age distributions, identical human age distributions, and are equally likely to be professionals.

Differences – The 5% of users who rely exclusively on GUIs are distinct in a number of ways:

  • 13% of exclusive GUI users are new to GitHub, compared to just 4% among those who use the command line at least some of the time.

I’m using the GitHub’s web flow most of the part just because I don’t know how to use it throughout the command line yet.

8. Git is the greatest challenge, but social challenges are the most persistent

We asked:

Q. When you first joined GitHub, what was your biggest challenge?


  • Learning Git is -by far- the most frequently cited challenge for both professional (44%) and hobbyist (43%) users. However, people who stick around on GitHub find ways to solve this problem; the greatest unsolved problems are social.

Open text quotes:

fear of public ridicule, my shitty code/scripts, moving from subversion and git itself

For me, it was the fear of looking like an idiot in front of other people.

Git was my first real version control, so just understanding how it all works.

I feel that Git is much harder to use than, e.g. SVN.

It took a while to fully understand the Git model and workflow.

Merging is more complex than Perforce and the results are often unexpected.

9. Professionals solve their problems with support from human peers

We asked:

Q. How did you solve that challenge?

While professional users are technically more skilled and experienced than hobbyists in many ways, they are more likely to rely on human resources and low-tech tools like white boards to solve problems.

This isn’t always smooth- they are (slightly) more likely to cite social issues as being the biggest challenge. However, the factor that accounts for the lower rate of persistent challenges among professionals is their access to people who can help them solve their problems.

We asked:

Q. What was most helpful for learning how to use GitHub?


  • GitHub’s Docs and outside online resources like Stack Overflow predominate among the most helpful sources for learning GitHub, according to both hobbyist and professional respondents.

Open text quotes:

My colleagues helped me separate critiques of my code from critique of me personally.

Basically I had to just use Git with multiple other people, run into problems, have to use Github documentation and google to learn to fix them, and then teach my teammates how to fix them.

I had used Git loosely for version control while I was the only developer on a team. Now, I have moved to team collaboration and needing to do pull requests, rebasing, merging, etc. So I am having to get up to speed on those aspects of Git.

It was just early on in my career and I had trouble just figuring out the different “steps” that it takes to checkout a branch, make changes, merge them and push the code to the repo.


When we began this study we weren’t sure who would respond –who would take a 35-question survey and what would they say? While we asked about tools and workflows, we also asked about social challenges, which can be difficult to discuss. The data we’ve analyzed has been richer than we ever hoped for, and this is the first in a series of analyses.

As we reviewed the insights and spoke with members of GitHub’s product management and engineering teams, we saw a concluding story emerge. There appears to be a hierarchy of tools needs that lead into workflows.

Themes about human behaviors:

  1. People desire and require experiences that build self-confidence.

Research is better when you get to discover new things about the world with someone who has a different perspective — someone who is willing to challenge you.

UX Researcher. Today: Googler on Firebase. My exs: Airbnb (2018), GitHub (2016) & Mozilla (2012). Human interface to Paisley pug.

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