During the first century of Muslim rule in Spain, most people remained Mozarab — aka Christian Hispano-Goths living under Muslim rule. However, that started to change under Emir Abd al-Rahman II of Córdoba (822–852), even though it wasn’t until the reign of Emir and later Caliph Abd al-Rahman III (912–961) when Muslims became the majority of the inhabitants of al-Andalus. The process of conversions was starting to accelerate for many reasons. Just to name some motives: the ever-increasing taxes, the impossibility to access certain public offices, the building of new mosques, and the new centralizing and Islamic policies of Abd…

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