Does air pollution kill 40,000 people each year in the UK?
David Spiegelhalter

Whilst at the DfT prior to 2012, I had similar concerns about the ecological nature of much of the COMEAP data. Really good to see your analysis. What is needed is adequately controlled large studies of individuals, and an idea of the threshold at which the particulate effect kicks in. Without this, I’ve always felt the 40k figure to be – yes – a best-estimate, but one which could be some other number entirely.

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