Dinner time! Bob’s favourite dish! “How was your day?” Betty asks to open conversation. Halfway through dinner, after Betty telling Bob he should visit the doctor instead of searching symptoms online, she tells she witnessed an accident on Westfield Road earlier that day, but Bob can’t recall that location. “Let me show you.” She gets her Samsung Galaxy S6, opens Google Maps and zooms in. “Right there!”

Later that night, Bob remembers to contact Dave to hang out. …


The modern Front End workflow is full of tools and things. Processing source code and assets with Gulp, Grunt or perhaps you’re a rebel and use npm. Sass or Less generates your stylesheets. Your front end dependencies are managed by Bower.

It took me a long time before using Bower. Some dependencies don’t have a minified version bundled. Some dependencies are needed elsewhere, like I like to include normalize.css in a Sass file. I desired full control, and Bower wouldn’t give it.

One day, I came across symlinks and I immediately remembered the problem I was having with Bower. …


Throughout history, keeping messages private was important. The most widely known case of ciphering is Ceasar’s cipher. Julius Caesar, that Roman general you may have heard of in history class once, had many enemies and wanted some of his messages kept secret, so used a cipher that basically shifts the alphabet a specified amount of characters. Replacing characters to make text unreadable to humans is called a substitution cipher.

ABCDEF    HELLO WORLD
vvvvvv so vvvvv vvvvv
XYZABC EBIIL TLOIA

That’s pretty cute, but is it really safe? In 100-44 BC, not many were able to read in the first place. Those who could probably considered the text just gibberish, rather than encoded text. Fast forward just over 2000 years. Today, shifting letters in the alphabet is not considered safe. In fact, substitution ciphering (replacing characters with others) is not very common in cryptography at all, but it’s interesting, fun and educational nonetheless. …

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store