During the Iron Age, what is currently metropolitan France was occupied by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome added the territory in 51 BC, holding it until the appearance of Germanic Franks in 476, who framed the Kingdom of Francia. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 parceled Francia into East Francia, Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which turned into the Kingdom of France in 987, developed as a significant European force in the Late Middle Ages, following its triumph in the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). During the Renaissance, French culture thrived and a worldwide pioneer realm was built up, which by the twentieth century would turn into the second biggest on the planet.
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The sixteenth century was ruled by strict common wars among Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France turned into Europe’s prevailing social, political, and military force in the seventeenth century under Louis XIV. In the late eighteenth century, the French Revolution ousted the total government, setting up one of present day history’s most punctual republics and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which communicates the country’s goals right up ’til the present time.
In the nineteenth century, Napoleon took power and set up the First French Empire. His resulting Napoleonic Wars (1803–15) formed the course of mainland Europe. Following the breakdown of the Empire, France persevered through a wild progression of governments coming full circle with the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a significant member in World War I, from which it rose triumphant, and was one of the Allies in World War II, yet went under occupation by the Axis controls in 1940.
Following freedom in 1944, a Fourth Republic was set up and later broke up over the span of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, drove by Charles de Gaulle, was framed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and about the various states got free during the 1960s, with most holding close monetary and military associations with France.