I would draw a distinction between product development by design, on the one hand, and R&D on the other hand. R&D is not expected to have a direct return on investment. It is experimentation. But most businesses, and in particular startups, need a more predictable ROI than what comes out of an R&D. Ultimately, my point about design, is that if done well, it makes successful innovation much more predictable than a “never fail to fail” approach. The latter is a game for the very rich to play in their spare time. It is not a recipe for success for most businesses.