The Oceanic Eve of Destruction

An orange Garibaldi, California’s State fish, swims through dense fronds of algae off Anacapa Island around 2000 in a marine reserve teeming with life. Photo from Getty Images.
Kelp Forest off Anacapa Island about 2000
Spiny purple sea urchins carpet the ocean floor off Monterrey, so dense annual Bull Kelp can’t start growing, while perennial Giant Kelp loses their holdfasts and die. Photo by Getty Images.
Urchin Barrens off Monterrey
An orange head of hard coral, the only head of living hard coral I saw at Turneffe Atoll in Belize. Note the red calcareous algae covering the dead coral heads. My photo, February 2020
Bleached, dying, the only head of hard coral I saw in Belize
A photo I took off Anacapa Island, Channel Islands National Park of the lush kelp forest of the first photo, laid waste, without a single recognizable growing plant: almost a post-nuclear holocaust.
Post-Warming Kelp Bed




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