They were Israelites long before Judaism was in existence. They are Israelis when considering ethnic origins as being Jewish refers specifically to their religious beliefs. Just as Christians aren’t an ethnic group, but a religious one.
Ancient Israelites originated from what we refer to as modern day Israel. It is surrounded by Arabic nations and it’s ancient peoples would intertwine with the Arabic cultures in ancient cultural meccas such as nearby Egypt and Babylonia.
The ancient art that has been found in those regions dating to that period, do depict the Israelite people with darker toned skin complexions and more Arabic physical features.
The modern day image of Jesus that is depicted in all of western culture, is an image created from a Europeans genetical perspective and not that of an actual ancient Israeli.
The common imagery of Jesus that is used throughout much of Europe and in the America’s, does not depict an Israelite man (genetically speaking), but more so a man of European ethnicity.
Artist had to use their imagination and many of them never got to see a person of another ethnic group outside of Europe. Obviously, it’s impossible for any human to imagine something that doesn’t come from that, in which, we’ve already seen.
We can only take a combination of visual features to make new images, but it’s just mixing together things we already have physically seen. So naturally, European artist back in the early stages of Christianity, had imagined Jesus as a European and not an actual Israelite which has transcended through to modern day.
That causes a lot of misconception because Europeans and Israelis have been genetically mixing (I will spare you the details of how they mixed) for a very long time, which has obviously changed the physical features from their ancestor’s in a large portion of the modern Jewish population.
Especially in America since many of them migrated from Europe (WWII) and not Israel. If that all makes sense, hopefully. History is a complex story.