The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. On March 12, 1989, Tim Berners- Lee, a British computer scientist and former CERN employee, wrote a proposal for what would eventually become the World Wide Web. The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners- Lee eventually realized the concept could be implemented throughout the world. Berners- Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext “to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will”. In these ways the first web service was designed and tested and latterly confined as Word Wide Web.
In 1989, Tim Burners-Lee suggested creating a global hypertext space in which any networkaccessible information would be referred to by a single Universal Document Identifier (UDI). The dream behind of the web was to create a common information space in which people communicate by sharing information.
Web 1.0 was mainly a read-only web. Web 1.0 was static and somewhat mono-directional. Businesses could provide catalogs or brochures to present their productions using the web and people could read them and contacted with the businesses. Actually, the catalogs and the brochures were similarly advertisements in newspapers and magazines and most owners of ecommerce websites employed shopping cart applications in different shapes and forms. The websites included static HTML pages that updated infrequently. The main goal of the websites was to publish the information for anyone at any time and establish an online presence. The websites were not interactive and indeed were as brochure-ware. Users and visitors of the websites could only visit the sites without any impacts or contributions and linking structure was too weak. Core protocols of web 1.0 were HTTP, HTML and URI.
The term web 2.0 was officially defined in 2004 by Dale Dougherty, vice-president of O’Reilly Media, in a conference brainstorming session between O’Reilly and MediaLive International. Tim O’Reilly defines web 2.0 on his website1 as follows:
“Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform. Chief among those rules is this: Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them.”
Web 2.0 is also known the wisdom web, people-centric web, participative web, and read-write web. With reading as well as writing, the web could become bi-directional. Web 2.0 is a web as a platform where users can leave many of the controls they have be used to in web 1.0. In other words, the users of web 2.0 have more interaction with less control. Web 2.0 is not only a new version of web 1.0; Flexible web design, creative reuse, updates, collaborative content creation and modification were facilitated through web 2.0. One of outstanding features of web 2.0 is to support collaboration and to help gather collective intelligence rather web 1.0.
compare web 1.0 and web 2.0 in some features simplicity.
John Markoff of the New York Times suggested web 3.0 as third generation of the web in 2006. The basic idea of web 3.0 is to define structure data and link them in order to more effective discovery, automation, integration, and reuse across various applications.Web 3.0 tries to link, integrate, and analyze data from various data sets to obtain new information stream; It is able to improve data management, support accessibility of mobile internet, simulate creativity and innovation, encourage factor of globalization phenomena, enhance customers’ satisfaction and help to organize collaboration in social web.
Web 3.0 is also known as semantic web. Semantic web was thought up by Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web. There is a dedicated team at the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) working to improve, extend and standardize the system, languages, publications and tools have already been developed. Semantic web is a web that can demonstrate things in the approach which computer can understand. The main important purpose of semantic web is to make the web readable by machines and not only by humans.
The current web is a web of documents, in some ways like a global file system that the most important problems about it are included: The web of documents was designed for human consumption in which primary objects are documents and links are between documents (or parts of them). Semantics of content and links are implicit and the degree of structure between objects is fairly low.
Semantic web is being to be developed to overcome the problems of current web. Semantic Web can be defined a web of data, in some ways like a global database that most its features are included: The aim of design web of data is machines first, humans later. Primary objects are things so links are between things. Semantics of content and links are explicit and the degree of structure between objects is high based on RDF model.
The main difference between web 2.0 and web 3.0 is that web 2.0 targets on content creativity of users and producers while web 3.0 targets on linked data sets. Compares some differences between web 2.0 and web 3.0.
Tim Berners-Lee proposed a layered architecture for semantic web that often represented using a diagram, with many variations since. Figure 3 gives a typical representation of this diagram .
Web 4.0 is still an underground idea in progress and there is no exact definition of how it would be. Web 4.0 is also known as symbiotic web. The dream behind of the symbiotic web is interaction between humans and machines in symbiosis. It will be possible to build more powerful interfaces such as mind controlled interfaces using web 4.0. In simple words, machines would be clever on reading the contents of the web, and react in the form of executing and deciding what to execute first to load the websites fast with superior quality and performance and build more commanding interfaces.
Web 4.0 will be the read-write-execution-concurrency web. It achieves a critical mass of participation in online networks that deliver global transparency, governance, distribution, participation, collaboration into key communities such as industry, political, social and other communities. Web 4.0 or webOS will be such as a middleware in which will start functioning like an operating system. The webOS will be parallel to the human brain and implies a massive web of highly intelligent interactions. Although there is no exact idea about web 4.0 and its technologies, but it is obvious that the web is moving toward using artificial intelligence to become as an intelligent web.
One definition: “A human-centered society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space.”
Society 5.0 was proposed in the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan as a future society that Japan should aspire to. It follows the hunting society (Society 1.0), agricultural society (Society 2.0), industrial society (Society 3.0), and information society (Society 4.0).
How Society 5.0 works
Society 5.0 achieves a high degree of convergence between cyberspace (virtual space) and physical space (real space). In the past information society (Society 4.0), people would access a cloud service (databases) in cyberspace via the Internet and search for, retrieve, and analyze information or data.
In Society 5.0, a huge amount of information from sensors in physical space is accumulated in cyberspace. In cyberspace, this big data is analyzed by artificial intelligence (AI), and the analysis results are fed back to humans in physical space in various forms.
In the past information society, the common practice was to collect information via the network and have it analyzed by humans. In Society 5.0, however, people, things, and systems are all connected in cyberspace and optimal results obtained by AI exceeding the capabilities of humans are fed back to physical space. This process brings new value to industry and society in ways not previously possible.
Society 5.0 Will Bring About a Human-centered Society
In society up to now, a priority has generally been placed on social, economic, and organizational systems with the result that gaps have arisen in products and services that individuals receive based on individual abilities and other reasons. In contrast, Society 5.0 achieves advanced convergence between cyberspace and physical space, enabling AI-based on big data and robots to perform or support as an agent the work and adjustments that humans have done up to now. This frees humans from everyday cumbersome work and tasks that they are not particularly good at, and through the creation of new value, it enables the provision of only those products and services that are needed to the people that need them at the time they are needed, thereby optimizing the entire social and organizational system.
This is a society centered on each and every person and not a future controled and monitored by AI and robots.
Achieving Society 5.0 with these attributes would enable not just Japan but the world as well to realize economic development while solving key social problems. It would also contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the United Nations.
Japan aims to become the first country in the world to achieve a human-centered society (Society 5.0) in which anyone can enjoy a high quality of life full of vigor. It intends to accomplish this by incorporating advanced technologies in diverse industries and social activities and fostering innovation to create new value.
The new frontier of tech-driven revolution
AI and machine learning (ML) are clearly in vogue. It’s hard not to fall under the spell of this techno-based fascination. I never fail to be amazed by the new developments in driverless vehicles, the great victory of Deep Mind against the world’s best chess player, or the global sensation that is Pepper Robot and its complex emotional analysis.
Is this the new stage of evolution?
The fundamental principles of AI and ML are surprisingly simple. It’s about analyzing data, identifying patterns, making informed predictions, then continually validating and iterating to increase the accuracy and speed of the next set of predictions.
With every passing day, computing speeds get faster, data sets larger, and algorithms more efficient. This exponentially enhances a system’s ability to learn and predict, ultimately mimicking human intelligence or, dare we say, even beating it.
Organizations around the world are already weaving in AI and ML, as well as other evolving technologies — cloud computing, personalization, internet of things, neural sciences, and robotics — into the very fabric of their DNA. Even in our own backyard — Southeast Asia, that is — you’ll find an ever-growing cohort of firms rapidly adapting to this new AI trend.
Time for a regional AI and ML (r)evolution
Let’s look at Indonesian fashion innovator Sale Stock, an ecommerce company based in Jakarta. It engages the latest AI technology to mine and analyze data and customer behavior beyond human capability. This allows the company to identify popular designs and tailor production to optimize costs to a level far below industry peers.
Such AI innovation isn’t limited to consumer goods. In Thailand, Bumrungrad International Hospital has deployed IBM Watson for oncology, an AI construct developed to advance cancer care.
At the state-run Rajavithi Hospital, AI is used to analyze patients’ eye screen results to assess if they are at risk of vision loss, helping inform decisions on preventative treatment. The accuracy rate of 95 percent disease detection is 11 points higher than that demonstrated by opticians or eye doctors.
AI is optimizing agriculture, too. In Vietnam, a crop intelligence startup called Sero has encouraged rice growers to take pictures of sick crops and upload them online. AI programs analyze the photos to identify crop diseases with an increasingly high degree of accuracy. The next evolutionary step is for the system to send disease diagnoses and suggested treatment options via smartphone apps to farmers directly.