Artificial Intelligence 101 — AI and Neurons

What is AI?
The goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is the development of paradigms or algorithms that require machines to perform cognitive tasks, at which humans are currently better. An AI system must be capable of doing three things:

  1. store knowledge
  2. apply the knowledge stored to solve problems
  3. acquire new knowledge through experience.

Therefore, an AI system has three key components:

1.Representation 
The most distinctive feature of AI is the use of a language of symbol structures to represent both general pieces of knowledge about a problem domain of interest and specific knowledge about the solution to the problem.The kind of data supplied to the machine by the environment is usually defective — the result of the learning element does not know in advance how to fill in missing details or to ignore details that are unimportant. The machine, therefore, operates by guessing and then receiving feedback from the performance element. The feedback mechanism allows the machine to evaluate its hypotheses and revise them if necessary.
Machine learning may involve two rather different sorts of data processing: inductive and deductive.

  • In inductive information processing, general patterns and rules are determined from raw data and experience.
  • In deductive information processing, however, general rules are used to determine specific facts. 
    Similarity-based learning uses induction, whereas the proof of a theorem is a reasoning from known axioms and other existing theorems.
  • Explanation-based learning uses both induction and deduction. The importance of knowledge support and the difficulties experienced in learning have led to the expansion of various methods for augmenting knowledge principles.

2. Reasoning
In its most basic form, reasoning is the ability to solve predicaments. For a system to qualify as a reasoning system it must satisfy certain requirements:
* The system must be able to express and interpret a broad range of queries and query types.
* The system must be able to make precise and implicit data known to itself.
* The system must have a control tool that decides which operations to implement on a particular problem, when a solution to the problem has been obtained, or when additional work on the problem should be terminated.
Problem-solving may be viewed as a pursuing problem. A common approach to “search” is to use rules, data, and control. The rules operate on the data, and the control operates on the rules.

Source : http://www.faadooengineers.com/notes/images/1/7/d9160abc15c713a150a1425e12370e241.png

3. Learning 
In the example of machine learning depicted in Fig. 1 .25, the context supplies some information to a learning component. The learning part then uses this data to make improvements in a knowledge base, and finally, they have to be precise. The performance of the network degrades gracefully within a certain spectrum. The network is made even more robust by the feature of the “coarse coding” where each piece is spread over several neurones feature is spread over several neurones.

What is a neurone?
A neurone is an information-processing unit that is fundamental to the progress of a neural network. The model of a neurone forms the basis for creating neural networks and has three essential components of the neuronal pattern:

Source : http://www.faadooengineers.com/notes/images/1/7/c534b0e961ae10ace263c05a291e428a1.png
  1. A set of synapses or connecting sections, each of which is described by a weight or strength of its own. Specifically, a signal Xj at the input of synapse j attached to neurone k is multiplied by the synaptic weight.
    The first appendix refers to the neurone in question and the second one, t refers to the input terminal of the synapse to which the weight points. 
    Unlike a synapse in the brain, the synaptic weight of an artificial neurone lies in a series that includes negative as well as positive values.
  2. An adder for summing the input signals, weighted by the respective synapses of the neurone and the methods outlined compound a linear combiner.
  3. An activation function for limiting the amplitude of the product of a neurone. The activation capacity is also introduced as a squashing function in that it squashes the permissible amplitude spectrum of the output signal to some finite value.

Typically, the normalised amplitude range of the output of a neurone is written as the closed unit interval [0, 1] or alternatively [- 1, 1]. The neuronal model also includes an externally applied bias, denoted by bk.The bias bk has the effect of increasing or lowering the net input of the activation function, depending on whether it is positive or negative, respectively.

In particular, depending on either the bias bk is positive or negative, the relationship between the induced local field or activation likely V of neurone k and the linear combiner amount Uk is modified in the manner — hereafter the term “induced local field” is used.