Picture from the Library of Congress

Virginia’s 1705 slave codes established a racial hierarchy of white supremacy, laid the groundwork for slavery, set the stage for systemic racism.

When the first Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619, the institution of slavery as we know it today had not yet taken shape. The practice of indentured servitude was the established institution for dealing with individuals who by free will or by force contracted (indenture) to work without pay for another. So when the first Africans arrived it was rather clear that Virginia did not have a set way of dealing with them,” notes Daryl Scott, professor of…

Photo by Joshua Bedford on Unsplash

The 13th amendment set the stage for bias-based policing, mass incarceration, and systemic racism in criminal justice.

President Lincoln’s signing of the 13th amendment in 1865 abolished slavery and involuntary servitude and African Americans are eternally grateful however, many are not familiar with the exception clause of that same amendment. That clause italicized below set the stage for the mass incarceration of African Americans, the unconscious biases that exist among police officers, and the systemic racism that permeates the U.S. criminal justice system today. In its entirety the 13th amendment reads:

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or…


On May 22nd, President Donald Trump labeled churches and other houses of worship as “essential” and called on governors nationwide to let them reopen and threatened to “override” governors who defy him.

Many Governors across the country took note. Church pastors in my state were ecstatic to hear the Governor announce that churches were permitted to reopen on May 31st, albeit for gatherings of no more than 100. The Governor’s announcement was met with a sigh of relief by many. Before the Governor’s announcement, many church members including myself were wrestling with what to do. Should we defy the Governor’s…

I Lost Everything I Owned Because of It. How to Prevent It From Happening to You.


I had always assumed that the use and disclosure of my most personal and sensitive information were protected by state and federal right to privacy laws. I was shocked and caught off guard when I discovered that my most privileged and confidential information was not protected at all, or very little at best. In fact, quite the opposite was true, my information and that of my family was on the Internet in plain sight for anyone to access. …

J. W. Wright

Fun-loving, happy go lucky guy, likes writing about real life experiences.

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