Yuval Noah Harari’s beautifully written account of the history of human evolution is divided into three major revolutions: cognitive, agricultural, and scientific. Humans first evolved in East Africa about 2.5 million years ago from an earlier genus of apes called Australopithecus, and around 2 million years ago some of these archaic beings left their birthplace to settle vast areas of North Africa, Europe and Asia. Humans in Europe and western Asia evolved into Homo neanderthalensis. Neanderthals, bulkier and more muscular than us Sapiens, were well adapted to the cold climate of the Ice Age in western Eurasia. The more eastern…

Evan McShane

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