Hi Ben. Good points and I completely agree that people have to be offered a far better level of service. This could certainly help to increase willingness to pay. It may not offer the prospect of full cost recovery in all cases but it could certainly help to increase returns and the amount that can be re-invested in service provision. Something I have seen is that the delivery technology doesn’t always have a bearing on the quality of service received. A low spec handpump, a higher spec handpump (like an India Mark II or Afridev) or a piped scheme using motorised pumping (less so spring fed gravity schemes) can all deliver a very bad level of service if they are poorly introduced and poorly managed. It is not just handpumps that suffer from poor performance but also many piped schemes. They can all deliver a good service too provided that they are well introduced and well managed. It is attention to these aspects that is often lacking in the work of International NGOs, local NGOs, governments and indeed the private sector. A concerted drive to say enough is enough and push for higher service levels needs to happen across the board.