The teleology here might be revamped from the scientific to the human perspective. What’s “out there” is really just what’s “in here” in our individual finite Touring-Tape minds. Humans evolved what we poorly understand as consciousness, so-called natural intelligence, which forms perspectives and beliefs in order to survive. It is our imagination that the motion in the green leaves might be something we can catch for food. It is a belief we hold with more or less emotion the tastier and more certain the meal. Our imagination and engine of belief can lead us to a satisfying supper, a reliable way to join two sticks to shed the rain or drift off into neurosis, i.e. only predictive of part of the verifiable world or worse, on into psychosis, i.e. detached completely from accuracy and become a prison for our mind.
All of science is belief whether verifiable or not. Astrophysics can no more escape Shannon-Heartley-Teller theorem than a frog can escape gravity. Nor can we. Bigger telescopes provide bigger C. We need to live longer, have bigger Touring tapes (brains), bigger telescopes or all three! Know-ability and understanding is one thing but truth is another.
And mathematics has it’s own version of Heisenberg’s uncertainty. The axiom of choice and hence all inductive mathematics — the old classical stuff, including calculus and higher mathematics as well as much of modern mathematics is uncertain at it’s base the way Wittgenstein's critique shed light on Godel who himself stopped the positivists Russell and Whitehead dead in the middle of Principia Mathematica. So even Godel was a mathematical realist. e.g. Godel (1944):
“Classes and concepts may, however, also be conceived as real objects…It seems to me that the assumption of such objects is quite as legitimate as the assumption of physical bodies and there is quite as much reason to believe in their existence. They are in the same sense necessary to obtain a satisfactory system of mathematics as physical bodies are necessary for a satisfactory theory of our sense perceptions…”
One of many entertaining accounts can be found;
So even Godel required belief. I’d say the Astrophysicists have just found out that black holes are information phenomena and have just caught up with philosophers and mathematicians who have had their own black holes for ever so much longer a time! And the Platonist's number still lives but are there many numbers 2 or do we all make use of and share just one number 2 ? It’s kind of like what’s in your wallet. What do you believe and do you know how to check if it’s something to eat, wind in the trees or just your limited imagination? We pass on but the culture survives. Astrophysics, teleology, mathematics, golf…these are cultural matters. LOL