3 Best Business Essay Samples

Vlad
Vlad
Aug 2, 2018 · 22 min read

Sample1: Negative Impacts of Poor Talent Management Strategies

Introduction

Talent management is gaining worldwide recognition. Those leadership groups who do not understand the impact that talent management could have in their organisations do not reap the rewards that come with a program that is highly effective. The term ‘talent management’ is fairly new (approximately fifteen years in use). Nonetheless, it is gaining momentum as social science continues to develop evidence based decision making tools. The results that materialize give leadership groups valuable information that contributes to effective decision making. Well informed decisions are those that lead to success and mitigate the time allocated in bringing them to fruition. It is not enough to want to implement a talent management program. The process must be guided and measured to ensure that the desired outcomes are on target. However, if success were to remain constant there would be no room to learn new methods or gain newfound ideas. Failure is imminent when processes are not monitored. In addition, failure has the potential to harm the organisation and in turn, the stakeholders as well.

The Failure and Success of Talent Management Systems

The Talent Management (TM) concept is fairly new by modern day standards. Thunnissena, Boselieb, and Fruytier (2013) posit that TM began to receive global recognition ten years prior to the publication of their article. As a result, TM appears to be moving from the developmental stages of “infancy” (p. 1744) to toddler stages. The newness of TM poses implementation challenges of various sorts. Hence, resulting in faulty application methodologies. Therefore, it follows that flawed TM methodologies hinder business processes, hence, creating negative domino effects within the social organisation environment.

This paper shows how poorly implemented or absent TM strategies impact organisation processes. It also shows how scientifically validated strategies prevent potential harms from happening or eliminate the threat altogether. It addresses reasons why TM initiatives fail. There is a discussion on environmental conditions that lead to failure and the negative impact on employees. It closes with a recapitulation of the content.

TM is a human resource concept that concerns the management of people for mutually beneficial competence exploitation. A few examples of organisations failing with regard to TM are Google, Amazon, Express Scripts, SEARS, and Dillards Inc, amongst many others. Lewis (2013) finds Google to be so decalescent that he cannot imagine why anyone would quit working there. Kantor and Streitfeld (2015) refer to Amazon’s workplace environment as “bruising” (Kantor & Streitfeld 2015, para. 1). Duggan (2015) posits that America’s list of terrible companies to work for is an extensive one.

This paper is structured in the following format. The content is divided into sections with subsections for discussion clarity. The failure or success of talent management topics are discussed as well. Thereafter, discussions address reasons for talent management failure, and negative affects on business. Preventive applications for the success of talent management discuss secondary subtopics that fall within the parameters of the bigger picture concept. The paper closes with concluding comments.

Reasons for Talent Management Failure

According to May (2015), employees leave organisations for many reasons. For example, a few of those reasons are unhappiness with their jobs, dissatisfaction with poor management strategies, and or ineffective leadership. Thunnissena, Boselieb, and Fruytier (2013) attribute potential failures to demographics, retiring baby boomers, mobile technology, and increasing globalization. Lockwood (2006) asserts that the lack of leadership commitment has a nullifying effect on the TM process

Allen, Bryant, and Vardaman (2010) discuss employee turnover, dissatisfaction with salaries, and application of a one-size-fits-all retention strategy. They assert the existence of an erroneous management assumption, that all exits from the organisation fit a standard pattern. Downs and Swailes’s (2013) discuss the lack of social and ethical applications to talent management that affect employees in various ways. McDonald, Dear and Backstrom (2008) contribute to the discussion of specific discriminatory management practices.

Negative Affects (NA) on Business

Negative affects occur for many reasons. The discussion herein refers to few negative affects that are detrimental to the profitability or production in organisations. According to Duan, Lam, Chen, & Zhong (2010), employees become emotional when confronted with affective situations. As a result, some negative behaviors elicit retaliatory behaviors that do not benefit the organisation at all.

Detailed Discussions: NA Related with Employee Groups

Unhappy Employees. Song and Ybarra (2008) posits that unhappiness maybe be the potential result of situational demands. Additionally, he argues that unhappiness comes from the absence of “positive influence” (Song and Ybarra 2008, p. 57). Unhappiness falls under the umbrella of psychological well-being. As a result, environmental situations influence how employees perceive the events happening in the social environment. Hence, the potential for increased employee unhappiness contribute to dysfunctional work relationships. Thereby, affecting the employee as well as business productivity (Song and Ybarra 2008).

Employee Turnover. De Mesquita-Ferreira and de Acquino-Almeida (2015) argue that employee turnover poses a serious threat to organisations. They assert that employees who leave the organisation are replaced by new employees who lack equivalent competence as the person who left. As a result, organisation productivity decreases all the while the new employee is adapting to the organisations’ culture. For example, profit organisations may experience lower revenues due to lower productivity. Another example is that non-profit organisations may experience interference with public programs or services due to understaffing situations.

Poor Management Strategies. Toterhi and Recardo (2013) affirm that recovering from business failure is challenging and time consuming. When managers decide to cut TM budgets, they cripple the TM process altogether. Thereby, making budget cutting a poor management strategy. For example, lost revenue is one result of budget cutting decisions because budgets buy sales training, sales training increase closing skills, the more closed sales are transacted, the greater profit potential for the organisation. Therefore, it is in the best interest of all stakeholders that revenues increase (Poor 2008).

Changing Demographics. Meier and Loewenbein (2003) found that an aging population create adversarial circumstances. Consider for example, that baby boomers are extending their retirement as a result of improved health. Suddenly, there are integrated age groups that engage in conflicting engagements, thereby complicating the coworker relationship. The age mix has become a cause for new social science research on workplace intergenerational conflict (O’Bannon 2001).

Weak Senior Management Commitment. Prabhu and Robson (2000) found that a lack of committed financial resources had a detrimental affect (NA) on talent management initiatives. For example, it is not unusual for TM programs to become the target of budget cuts as a management directive to reduce costs. Such reductions eliminate opportunities for workforce development. They also increase the probability of low employee retention rates. In addition, leadership influence on employee engagement decreases (Prabhu & Robson 2000).

Duan, Lam, Chen, & Zhong (2010) assert that the NA of weak commitment eventually creates unhappy employees who have the potential to interfere with business processes in retaliation. According to Duan, Lam, Chen, & Zhong (2010), retaliatory behaviors “… may hurt colleagues or organizations…” (p. 1288). The NA of weak commitments also trickle down to employees as they perceive that leadership executives have dysfunctional habits of making promises never kept. Negative affects create potential opportunities for unethical behaviors to take place.

Lack of Social And Ethical Applications. According to Hartman, DesJardins, and MacDonald (2014), and Rhodes (2006), Enron was an example of an organisation lacking social responsibility and ethical leadership. Using Enron as an example demonstrating an organisation that ignored its obligation of social responsibility has become the standard norm. The leaderships lack of moral responsibility harmed many stakeholders, namely, the public, private investors, institutional investors, as well as employees. As a result, millions of stakeholders lost life savings, investments, and 401-Ks’. Consequently, the organisation sealed its defunct fate by engaging in socially irresponsible and unethical business practices.

Discrimination. Perhaps the most obvious and probably the most detrimental discrimination to the workforce is that of sexual harassment (SH). Cheri-Gay (2015) says that fifty years of legal issues and law redefinitions concerning SH, that society is still making the attempt to redefine exactly what the word sexual means. Sexual harassment is one of many forms of discrimination prevalent in organisations. Discriminatory SH destroys families, emotionally scars workers, society loses trust and faith, and the organisations existence is threatened by lawsuits and other environmental repercussions (Cheri-Gay, 2015).

Preventive Applications for Successful TM

A look into the popularity of TM provided over twenty-three million websites. Therefore, one can consider that TM is a desirable way to achieve organisation success. Evidence based strategies promote validated alternatives for organisation success. In contrast, the attempt to reinvent the scientific evidence becomes a challenging feat. According to Allen, Bryant, and Vardaman (2010) social science promotes preventive TM application with scientifically validated strategies (SVS). SVS for TM promises a significant return on investment. Following, are a few SVS that encourage successful outcomes for the organisation.

Talent Assessment

According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2003), assessing employee talents begins a decision making process that becomes well informed and structured. Assessments are business tools that identify competency and skill weaknesses, as well as, strengths in the same area. The management team benefits from a decision making strategy that clarifies what competencies and skills they want to focus on. They will able to make decisions that create learning and development opportunities without second guessing themselves. Another benefit manifests itself as a time savings factor because of the SVS factor.

Social Responsibility and Ethical Decision Making

Social responsibility is on its way to becoming a driving force in society. The term social responsibility encourages ethical behaviors grounded in morality (Rhodes, 2006). Therefore, one can consider moral decision making as a strategy that supports the moral leadership model. Therefore, it follows that moral leadership discourages behaviors that benefit the minority, but harm the majority (Hartman, DesJardins, & MacDonald 2014; Rhodes 2006).

Socially responsible behavioral codes include instituting a decision making process that determines the facts, identifies all stakeholders, and considers multiple alternatives on the affective nature of the issue at hand. After the information collection process, decision makers have the power to do what is right for all stakeholders. This can only be accomplished if the decision maker lives by moral values (Hartman, DesJardins, & MacDonald 2014; Rhodes 2006).

Characteristics of morally focused decision makers are promoted by Rhodes (2006) as possessing the following, commitment to moral values, insightful transformation, courage, and positive communication skills. Leite, de Aguiar Rodrigues, and de Albuquerque (2014) posit that commitment is a behavior that engages motivation and a desire to do. Insightful transformation requires self knowledge. That knowledge comes from environmental stimulation that incorporates discernment and cognitive perception. Thereafter, social stimulation determines if one will do the right thing (Lewis, 2008).

Courage. koerner (2014) discusses courage as a social identity construct. The stated construct engages one’s ability to sort through environmental input and use it to make a decision on the actions to be taken. Courage is a form of oppositional behavior that seeks to relieve social stimulation pressures. Relief transpires into the action that is linked to moral values (Koerner 2014).

Positive Communication Skills. Smart and Featheringham (2006) discuss effective communication as a skill that employers seek because it is critical for business operations. Effective communication skills allow employees to enter the organisation. Ineffective communication skills lead to conflicting situations. As a result, such events deprive the organisation of productive time. Articulation, writing, and good listening skills facilitate cross-functional interaction. These skills touch everything from accounting, to computers, and finance (Smart & Featheringham 2006).

Establish Accountability

Establishing Accountability. Accountability contributes value to pre-established organisation processes. According to Kotter and Cohen (2005), accountability assignment is a leadership commitment to accept responsibility for all outcomes of business processes. Accountability requires a standard of method of operation that enhances business processes. As a result, the focal factor becomes the measurement of employee competency relative to business processes and not their skills set. Employees are in need of assistance in understanding how their jobs contribute to business functions. Kotter and Cohen (2005) suggest that employees who perceive their jobs as an asset to the organisation increase their productivity as a result of feeling important to the company.

Encourage Engagement and Partnership Collaboration

Encouraging Engagement. Engagement is about inspiring employees to become active volunteers of their job requirements. Establishing a two-way communication process contributes towards voluntary engagement. Establishing focus groups and feedback debriefs increase the potential for significant engagement. Listening to employee concerns adds value to their emotional well being. In return, they reciprocate by increasing their production (Kotter & Cohen 2005).

Partnership Collaboration. Implementing participatory leadership (PL) strategies increases productivity and engagement. Somech (2003) asserts that participatory leadership creates an employee bond that encourages their engagement further. As a result, morale is high. This application increases productivity and enhances services for the business (Somech 2003).

Conclusion

The purpose of this paper was to discuss how poor talent management strategies negatively impacts organisations and employees. Presented herein are discussions that show how ineffective leadership interferes with organisation success. There are discussions on employee unhappiness, dissatisfaction, discrimination, weak leadership commitments, employee turnover, and changing demographics written to show the negative impact on organisations. In similar fashion, there are discussions on ways that those negatives can be prevented or eliminated altogether by using scientifically validated strategies. Explicit scientifically validated strategies show ways that the negative outcomes could contribute to leadership effectiveness.

Sample 2: Cooperative Group Non-Fairtrade Concerns

Introduction

This report outlines some of the key concerns of the Cooperative Groups employees regarding the overall ethical direction of the Group. The Group prides itself on its commitment to ethical business, be it in the fairtrade, environmental or locally sourced areas, and yet it is employees concerns that such standards are inconsistent throughout the Group and are therefore undermining the good reputation of the organisation. This report is particularly critical of the ongoing decision of the group to sell non fairtrade products alongside the groups own fairtrade products, specifically the promotion of these on a national level. In addition, the report emphasises the need to create much stronger links with local communities both as a means of engaging more with the communities in which the group operates, but also to create a more flexible supply structure based on the availability of local products.

Fair trade and non-fair trade

It is the employees considered opinion that the issue of fair trade and non-fairtrade is a key problem within the group’s grocery stores at present. The ethical stance taken by the group in sourcing all of its own brand products from sustainable farms and fair trade networks is certainly to be commended, however, the wider decision which has been taken to still stock products such as Nescafe and Galaxy and Mars chocolate continues to undermine this decision. The ethics of this situation are clear — either one is for fair trade and the wider benefits which this brings, or one is against it and believes that the free market will provide for all. By stocking and thereby profiting from products which do not take this stance the group undermines its commitment to these causes , particularly given the fact that the groups own products in this area are high sellers and are particularly competitive. A stronger commitment here would do much to boost the ethical background of the group.

It is also the employee’s belief that this could be tied in strongly with the Cooperative Banks commitment to development projects in developing nations. It seems ridiculous to be giving with one hand and taking with the other and therefore the employees would like to see a more explicit and concrete commitment on this level which could be taken across the Group as a whole. Much of the key development literature on the problem of poverty in Sub Saharan Africa focuses on the problem of creating sustained investment and providing important markets for export for products. The Cooperative Group is in a unique position as the owner of a large bank and a grocery outlet to provide this support and could be a real leader in this field. The public relations benefits of such an approach do not need to be laboured but more importantly there is a real opportunity to use the organisation for good in the world. With the growth of ethical consumerism and the notion of green marketing there is a real opportunity to make a difference in this sector.

Becoming truly local

It is the experience of many of the Group’s employees that many customers who come to the Groups grocery stores feel somewhat let down by the failure to push forward with stocking local produce. Many of these have highlighted the fact that larger retailers such as Morrison’s and Tesco have made strong headway on dealing with this issue. This issue is a key one in the sense that it engages with several of the key ethical considerations of the Group, as laid out on the Group’s website. These include the environmental considerations of moving products great distances. There is an important issue here with central distribution centres and the way in which these operate. It is often the case that products will be produced in one area of the country, moved to another hundreds of miles away and then returned via a wagon to a point two villages away. This undermines the credibility of the organisation on an environmental level but also on a local level.

Whilst employees appreciate the fact that such operations are often cheaper and are part of keeping the cost down, it is important to acknowledge the good public relations which could be created through enhancing the Group’s commitment to local job creation. A more dynamic supply network would certainly create this as it would require a significant step up in administration for it to be successful. However, the employees of the Group believe that this would be a significant PR coup and would therefore win the Group significant support, particularly in more rural areas. It would combine to create jobs, reduce the carbon footprint of the Group and also help the Group provide a real service to local people. Most people agree that the fresher the produce, the better.

Moving the organisation forward

Whilst this report is critical of the Group on several levels it must be acknowledged that the Group is to be significantly commended, particularly when one considers the current situation with many of its major competitors in the Grocery market. However, in a constantly changing world it is vital for such organisations as the Cooperative Group to continue to show the lead on issues such as local produce, carbon reduction programmes and ethical consumerism. To that end the organisation needs to examine fully what it believes the next level to be. This report embodies some of the views which should be seen as coming from the ‘shop floor’. They are based on the direct experience and views of the man on the street and from those who work in the Group’s outlets. Doubtless there are greater ethical considerations to be made and doubtless there are significant economic and financial aspects to be taken into account. However, for the Group to continue to pride itself on its ethical commitment it does need to take the next step forward.

This report suggests that looking to make radical changes in the sourcing of produce could provide a significant amount of jobs in the country (through the necessary management and administration structures which would be created), could reduce the organisations carbon footprint and would provide fresher and therefore better produce to all of its customers. This would represents a public relations coup and would fall directly in line with the Groups ethical commitments.

A further step which the organisation would like to see is through the role of the Bank. Once again, this is certainly deserving of significant support and plaudits for the work which it has done but the employees once again feel that a more concrete set of explicit principles could further improve both the reputation of the Bank as well as its ethical standing. These principles would also include a commitment to employees of the organisation but would also include the promise of support to small businesses which would be set up in support of the wider Cooperative Group operations. One example here would be of a small firm of delivery drivers which would be operating in support of rural farms in Northern Scotland. These would directly support the work of the Group in the sense of attempting to make the Group more local through sourcing food more locally and would therefore be supported by the Group knowing that there would be strong business there as the structure of the organisation changed.

The current economic climate and the Group

In making these critical comments of the Cooperative Group the employees would like to stress their knowledge and acceptance of the problems currently associated with the economic crisis within Europe and the wider world. However, it remains their belief that the Cooperative Group can become a beacon of what ethical business operations can do for the communities in which they operate. The employees believe that much of the current economic crisis was caused fundamentally by greed, be it the greed of investment bankers who made investments that they knew would not pay off, or invested in projects which they knew were unethical and which would result in damaged livelihoods. The Cooperative Group can stand opposed to these problems by creating a clear charter that it will not pay Directors hundreds of thousands of pounds in bonuses but will reinvest this money in local communities, supporting local farmers and local transport networks, supporting developing nations and the farmers who work there, helping to build links between the nations. It is the belief of the employees that if the Cooperative Group were to move forward and take on this more advanced ethical stance that it would be financially costly in the first instance as infrastructures would need implementing and there would doubtless be problems associated with this. However, it is also the belief of the employees that many people would support such businesses, particularly where they knew that it was directly affecting local business. It is certainly true that for many consumers the major consideration would remain price. However, the employees firmly belief that with hard work and the commitment of the wider Group, these ethical changes can be implemented in a successful manner.

Conclusion and Recommendations

• A stronger more direct commitment to moving the organisation forward in a sustainable and truly ethical manner.
• The Groups stance on issues such as Fair Trade is commendable and has been an important step in raising the profile of products such as chocolate and coffee and the issues surrounding the sourcing of the key commodities which these require.
• However, the Group must now acknowledge that the stance which it is taking on this issue is hypocritical — on the one hand advertising its own advocation of ethical sourcing and the importance of a fair price for growers whilst on the other hand continuing to directly profit from products which do not meet these standards.
• The Group would therefore benefit from a much more clear cut and well defined ethical approach in which its Grocery stores were operated on principles similar if not identical to those of the Food Wholesaler SUMA.
• The Group should oppose the sale of non-fair trade products under any circumstances and should work to source as many products as it can locally in order to support local industries, provide fresher produce to its customers and to provide greater local involvement.
• This process will encourage a greater involvement with local communities and will help the Group in becoming a dynamic and ethical supplier to local communities which becomes a part of these communities rather than being another huge chain which rips the soul out of local values and towns.
• To create an ethical pledge and commitment which will encompass all aspects of the Groups current ethical policies in a much more explicit and coherent way. One key example of this which the employees would particularly like to see is the following — The Group will not only commit itself to sourcing its own brand chocolate from fair trade farms it will actively support such farms with financial assistance from the bank and will undermine the market for non-fair trade products by refusing outright to stock such products.

References and Bibliography

Bevins, Vincent. “Guardian survey reveals shoppers’ green concerns.” The Guardian London: The Guardian, 2010.

Cooperative Group. “Ethical Trading and Fairtrade.” Manchester: Cooperative Group, 2010.

Cooperative Group. “Food Ethics.” Manchester: Cooperative Group, 2010.

Cooperative Group. “Food and Drink.” Manchester: Cooperative Group, 2010.

Klein, Naomi. “No Logo.” London: Fourth Estate, 2010.

Lang et al. “Food wars: the global battle for mouths, minds and markets.” London: Earthscan, 2003.

Moshirian, Fariborz. “Globalisation, growth and institutions.” Journal of Banking and Finance 32.4 (2008): 472–479.

Sachs, Jeffrey. “The End of Poverty: How We Can Make It Happen in Our Lifetime.” London: Penguin, 2005.

Stiglitz, Joseph. “Globalisation and its Discontents.” London: Penguin, 2002.

Stiglitz, Joseph. Sen, Amartya and Fitoussi, Jean-Paul. “Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.” 2009.

Weis, Tony. “The global food economy: the battle for the future of farming.” London: Zed Books, 2007.

Sample 3: Intrapreneurs and Intrapreneurial Research in Organisations

Abstract

Intrapreneurship is an inevitable aspect for the success and sustenance of an organisation that keeps in pace with the changing trends in the market and relies on innovative concepts for growth. Innovative ideas are usually suggested by the research and development experts of an organisation. However, research by the employees of the organisation who are well aware of the organisational objective is a cost and time effective method to venture into a new business, or to improve an existing product. An employee who acts as an entrepreneur and researches the development of innovative ideas is called an intrapreneurial researcher. The role of intrapreneurial researchers is highly sought after in organisations that diversifies and improves its various business ventures.

Introduction

Intrapreneurship is beneficial for the performance and revitalization of large organizations and small and medium enterprises. Intrapreneurial research is significant to develop innovative ideas to diversify existing business with the production of new services, products and technologies. Intrapreneurial research also supports the revitalization process such as reorganization, strategy reformulation and organizational change.

Intrapreneurial research is undertaken by an intrapreneur who has inherent qualities like competitiveness, initiative, aggressiveness and the courage to take risk to achieve organizational objectives. The orientation, activities and emphasis of intrapreneurship is similar to the traits required for entrepreneurship as recommended in Schumpeterian innovation. In a general view, the improvement of existing products and services and the use of administrative techniques, markets and technologies to conduct organizational operations such as marketing, production, distribution and sale and establishing a change in organising, strategy and managing competitors are innovations made by the intrapreneurial researcher.

Intrapreneurship is an important attribute that predicts the absolute growth of an organization and overcomes traditional bureaucratic barriers to adhere to high standards for open communications, assessment of business environment and the renewal of business policies to act proactively in the ever competitive marketplace. An intrapreneurial researcher plays a significant role in transition economies to adapt to the changing standards of developed economies to sustain the profitability and growth of existing organizations (Antoncic, B. & Hisrich, R.D. 2001 p.495–527).

Who are intrapreneurs?

Intrapreneurs or in-house entrepreneurs are dreamers and doers who have the capability to accelerate the speed and improve the cost effectiveness of transferring technology to the market place. Traditional research methods ignore the services of the intrapreneur. This method does not yield a good result during product innovation because an outside researcher requires more time to understand the organisational objectives and therefore this kind of research is time consuming and expensive. The size of the budget and the extent of self sufficiency are important factors during innovation.

A cost effective innovation emerges out of an organization when a person is passionate about bringing out an innovative concept and functions with enthusiasm to develop it using the available organisational system. This gives a new insight for the R & D managers to recognize and understand the significance of intrapreneurs (Pinchot, G. 1987).

Risk and Returns in intrapreneurial research

Intrapreneurial research is carried out by intrapreneurs or employee entrepreneurs or intra-corporate entrepreneurs working within an organisation who risk something of value to achieve a greater objective. The risk may be in the form of the time required to accomplish a preliminary research or a business plan while simultaneously holding the responsibilities as a corporate manager. The risk may also include financial sacrifices in the way of cut down on increments until the successful accomplishment of the new business or a reduction of certain percent of salary until the bonus for accomplishment is declared. The intrapreneur has to negotiate the quantum of risk for each project with the management, since risk is a factor that tests and improves the drive and conviction of the intrapreneur. Further, the organization is bound by an implied contract to abstain from interrupting the actions of the intrapreneur unless in the case of poor performance.

In the course of the product development, the researcher intrapreneur must make use of the opportunity to create a value similar to capital. On successful completion of a research project, the intrapreneur has the right to avail rewards and incentives from the organization based on the completed research which is predetermined by a trusted committee. The amount of reward is calculated either as a fraction of the value of the project or on the basis of accounting systems of the organisation. Other than the cash bonus, the intrapreneur has total control over a specific amount of research and development funds which the intrapreneur can invest on behalf of the organization for future research projects. These funds are called intra-capital (Pinchot III, G. & Pinchot, E.S. 1978).

Who can become intrapreneurs?

Intrapreneurial research is delegated to employees with a good performance record and business acumen during the initial stage of innovation. These traits enable a seasoned manager to face challenges with respect to the new venture efficiently (Pinchot,G. &Pellman, R. 1999 p.33).

When an intrapreneur is given the responsibility in a large organization to work with the internal service intraprise, they tend to show more enthusiasm to achieve their mission because they are responsible to manage the internal profit centres. In the due course, intrapreneurs pay attention to notice the highest revenue generating function and use customer feedbacks to understand their requirements in a better, faster and cheaper manner (Pinchot,G. & Pellman, R. 1999P.36). The creativity in the intrapreneurs enable them to foresee how potential customers would envisage a new product (Pinchot,G. & Pellman, R. 1999P.37). The outcome of delegating responsibility in this manner is a complete intrapreneurial organization that results in new vistas in productivity and innovation.

Support from the organisation

The organisation is also accountable while delegating intrapreneurial research. The organisation has to support the intrapreneurial researcher in terms of periodical coaching in addition to the initial workshop, and allocate essential resources. The extent of progress in the research has to be reviewed after six months and any obstacles identified in the research has to be rectified (Pinchot,G. &Pellman, R. 1999P.36).

Intrapreneurship in research and development requires the intrapreneur to possess different levels of skill from the one possessed as a corporate manager. The strategies of traditional managers to follow existing hierarchical structures with less risk factor and more short term goals inhibits the flexibility, creativity and risk needed to accomplish innovative ventures. Therefore, while setting up intrapreneurship, encouragement from the organization to experiment new concepts together with an environment for voluntary intrapreneurship and the promotion of teamwork is essential. The intrapreneur must work within the organizational structure diplomatically with open discussions and support from team members and must be persistent to overcome unavoidable barriers (Hisrich et al. 2005 p.54). The intrapreneur also avails freedom and privilege in terms of exemptions from controls that exist in a large organization (McKenna, E.F.2000 p.241).

Traits and tasks of intrapreneurs

One of the most important qualities in an intrapreneurial researcher is the awareness about competitors. The awareness that customers have alternatives in the marketplace enables the intrapreneur to research and design innovative products by considering the reality.

Intrapreneurial research entails the researcher to place positive concern over the product, generate leads for the products, ascertain the leads, respond to the needs of customers, explain the product, handle objections, close sale and offer after sale support (Pinchot,G. & Pellman, R. 1999 p.38)

Intrapreneurship in research begins with a business plan. The early stage of a business plan is a mere fantasy which the intrapreneurial researcher has to transform into a reality. In the course of the transition various questions arise about the plausibility and consistency of the innovation. This step is followed by the research to find solutions to complex assumptions. On completion of the process, intrapreneurs observe the fact, and the errors in the innovation plan are then corrected to meet the actual objective of the research (Pinchot,G. & Pellman, R. 1999 p.39).

Intrapreneurship and the organisation

On completion of the research project, intrapreneur has to take the project to the business development stage by testing and validating the new concept. This is called proof of concept. In case the intrapreneur has conducted market testing for a product, the same can be provided as a proof to support the claim that there is market potential for the innovative venture (Alterowitz, R & Zonderman,J. 2006 p.92).

Conclusion

It may be concluded that intrapreneurs are highly motivated, committed and proactive individuals who can sense opportunities in the market and employ entrepreneurial principals in the creation of innovative marketing decisions (Weaven, S.2004). Intrapreneurial researchers persistently reassess the dimensions that forecast, describe and design circumstances in which intrapreneurship flourish (Hornsby et al. 1993). These traits of an intrapreneurial researcher are also observed in an entrepreneur.

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