There are always people and organizations with power or prestige in the previous paradigm but not…
Joe Edelman

I was actually thinking of the Gulags. These didn’t precede the transition to communism, but followed it. They were a way for the fully mature communist regime to suppress dissent. They killed more people than the holocaust.

Is your contention here that the communist leaders saw the global rise of capitalism and resisted the transition within their borders with forced labor/death camps? I view it less as resisting change and more as resisting reality.

Whenever any of these ideologies gains sufficient power, it uses that power to make the world fit its conception. Any gap between its own image of the world and the facts must be removed. In its most extreme form this leads to vast networks of informants, burning of books and mass killings. It starts with systematic distortion of the media by ideologues.

Modern democracies are successful because they allow these worldviews to co-exist, fitting each to the circumstance it best describes.