Go 2 generics draft notes

Yuri Zhykin
Sep 8, 2018 · 4 min read

Last week Go team published a page with detailed specification drafts for Go 2 generics and error handling tools. The proposal is both well-thought and brave, since one of the main ideas is to introduce contract system akin to C++ concepts. Contracts, in Go parlance, are (possibly syntactically restricted) named functions, parameterized both by value and by its type, which are used by compiler to ensure some contract are held by types as stated. What’s great about contracts is that the procedure of contract checking is very simple — since it’s just a function body, compilers type-checks, compiles and then discards its body and that’s it.

But, simplicity for the compiler often comes with the cost for the user. This post is an attempt to analyze the proposal and collect any notes I made while reading the document. The Syntax section gives few notes on the proposed syntax, while Semantics section describes… well, semantics.


One of the most important little things about Go is a minimal and clean syntax. Generally, proposal keeps it that way but there are a few moments that make just a little bit too much in some places.

Function type parameter declarations

Since methods seem to not be having type parameters, for standalone functions they can be declared in place of method receiver argument:

func (type T) Print(slice []T) {
for _, v in range slice {
fmt.Printf("%v", v)

This both simplifies the (type ...)(parameters ...) form and is more logical from the point of view that type parameters and regular parameters should be clearly separated. The problem is such a syntax is a little bit ambiguous visually, but still it is much more simple from a notation point of view than (type ...)(parameters ...).

Contract as another type of type

To avoid Go 1 compatibility complexities with making contract a keyword, contacts can be considered another kind of type declaration, i.e. use syntax

type Convertible(_ To, f From) contract {}

This, however, may pose a semantic problem, since Go generally adheres to direct mapping between types and memory representation of values: structs map to sequences of named fields, interfaces map to double-pointer values, or pairs (val, vtable), while contracts do not map to anything, since they are purely compile-time constructs.


Contracts or no contracts?

Stating it this far in the post may be strange, but one of the first notes I made about contract proposal is that I actually don’t like the idea of having function bodies that are not function bodies, which may be misleading. Imposing restrictions on contract bodies requires extending Go’s grammar and having no restrictions whatsoever may cause eye injuries while reading contract bodies with if/for/defer statements. Allowing only assignment statements and expressions in a contract body won't prevent it from containing any logic beyond pure declaration of a set of permitted operations, which can still be very misleading to the reader.

Consider the following structures:

type Pair struct {
first, second int
type Cons struct {
head, tail int

Just by looking at these declarations, we can tell that they are structurally identical and, according to Go specifications, even have the same representation in memory. In other words these two structures are isomorphic and even if we have never worked with Lisp language and haven’t seen Cons structure before, we can easily deduce how it behaves, since it's isomorphic to the Pair, a simple structure everyone knows.

Similarly, consider these two interfaces:

type Index interface {
Clear(i int)
Set(i int, value string)
type StringMap interface {
Insert(k string, value interface{})
Remove(k string)

Even though this is a deliberately hard example and operations in these interfaces are completely different, they have the same signature structure and thus can be deemed isomorphic and understood to perform a similar tasks of including and changing some value at a given key.

Now, consider these two contracts:

contract strseq1(x T) {
contract strseq2(a T) {
var c int = len(a)
var bs []byte = []byte(a)

They declare the same set of operations, but in order to tell that you have to place them side by side and do some thinking. It’s not easy to informally check these two contracts are isomorphic, and it’s extremely hard to do this formally (see Graph isomorphism). In other words, structs and interfaces are declarative and simple to understand while contracts are imperative, and in order to understand a contract, you have to follow their statements. Still, all they do, is just declare a set of operations on some types. Go already has interfaces for that, so a more simple approach is to add operator methods, come up with a way to restrict overloading and just go with interfaces.

Contracts from interfaces

Assuming contracts are here to stay, we can compromise between contracts and interfaces by allowing using interface names as contract names in declarations in order to reuse trivial contract declarations, i.e. every interface declaration should generate equivalent contract as shown below:

type ReadWrite interface {
Read() string
contract ReadWrite(x T) {
val s string = x.Read()

This will allow using interfaces for most cases where contracts describe just a set of methods and resort to contracts only for hard case like conversions and operators. An important consequence of such correspondence is standard library of contracts automatically derived from standard interfaces.


Current Go generics proposal is very well-though and goes to great extent to avoid all the problems with parametric polymorphism systems in languages like C++ and Java. Contracts are a very interesting concept (pun intended), but they have some semantic drawbacks that are not yet solved and may never have a simple solution. Keeping that in mind, if there’s any change to substitute them with clean and pure old interfaces, we should do our best to try to avoid adding them to the language in the end as, once added, such features are very hard to get rid of.

Yuri Zhykin

Written by

Cryptography, compilers, Lisp, UNIX, cyberpunk, Austrian economics, coffee…

Welcome to a place where words matter. On Medium, smart voices and original ideas take center stage - with no ads in sight. Watch
Follow all the topics you care about, and we’ll deliver the best stories for you to your homepage and inbox. Explore
Get unlimited access to the best stories on Medium — and support writers while you’re at it. Just $5/month. Upgrade