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First, “A Song of Ice and Fire” is not orientalist. There is no exoticization of anything, much less the east (Essos). It is dismalist, critical, distressing, not orientalist in any way shape or form. Second, the idea that the spice trade or slavery was post-gunpowder and post-medieval is wrong. For example, one can argue the Crusades were as much about the spice trade with the Levant as much as religion. Third, banking originated in the city-states of Italy in the fourteenth century. So, congratulations. This story has struck out on history. As for the observation that literature reflects its own time period as much as the one it is portraying, “it is known”.

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