These are charity models that invest in their beneficiaries
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These are not charities. Kickstarter is not a charity. It’s the only one of the three I’m familiar with and nothing about Kickstarter is a charity. Heck maybe you’re unfamiliar with how Kickstarter works, a lot of people are unfamiliar with the specifics of Kickstarter. They just hear about things like Veronica Mars and Cards Against Humanity and Exploding Kittens and see this is where people are getting a lot of money and making things happen.

Please note that charity isn’t allowed on Kickstarter

It’s completely disingenuous to call Kickstarter a “charity model” because that assumes all charity goes to helping down on their luck businessmen and businesswomen get their grand new idea going. In that and only in that very slim and narrow definition is Kickstarter a charity model.