Quinary Gooware (Anthropomorphic Algorithm for MANNED Space Exploration)

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A DNA based five-state switch with programmed reversibility

Jonathan R. Burns a, Søren Preus b, Daniel G. Singleton a and Eugen Stulz *a 
aSchool of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK. E-mail: est@soton.ac.uk; Web: http://www.soton.ac.uk/~stulz Tel: +44 (0)2380 599 369 
bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark

Received 10th August 2012 , Accepted 21st September 2012

First published on the web 24th September 2012


A programmable switch based on a DNA hairpin loop is functionalised with a rigid or flexible porphyrin or FAM and TAMRA FRET pair, which provides insight into the restructuring of the hairpin as well as porphyrinporphyrin coupling. The switch contains five discrete states which can be accessed independently and followed by real-time spectroscopy, opening the way to a quinary computing code.


The unique self-recognition properties of DNA have been explored extensively for the formation of new self-assembled nano-architectures over the past decades. By taking the DNA out of its biological context, the emerging field of DNA nanotechnology is becoming increasingly attractive to advance research in drug delivery, autonomous machines or computing.1 Additional functionalities such as redox active metal complexes2 or organic chromophores3 are increasingly being incorporated into DNA, resulting in operational DNA based nano-devices. Still, the incorporation of chemically modified DNA into these nano-architectures is in its infancy, and the exploration of modified DNA as building blocks remains an important aspect to understand their behaviour and suitability for DNA nanotechnology. In particular, organic chromophores4 such as pyrenes5 and porphyrins6 are gaining increasing attention as DNA modifiers e.g. for the creation of photonic wires, or as diagnostic tools since their optical properties (absorption, emission) can vary with the DNA sequence or a change in the environment such as pH, temperature or secondary structure.

Particularly intriguing structures arise when partially self-complementary DNA strands assemble to form intramolecular hairpin loops. The loops can be opened and closed through sequential addition of suitable complementary DNA strands, thus creating moving parts within a DNA nanostructure. The concept has been used in molecular beacons for DNA analysis,7 in switchable DNAnanostructures with optical responses,8 and in autonomous DNA walkers.9 Here, we report a programmable switch based on a molecular beacon, where the DNA is partially self-complementary with repeating ATTA–TAAT sequences (Fig. 1). An additional 13 base sequence allows for specific recognition of complementary strands including various repeats of the complementary ATTA–TAAT box, thus enabling controlled elongation or contraction of the stem region. To demonstrate functionality, FRET pairs were attached to the extremes of the repeat region, giving access to a tuneable energy transfer system with well-defined chromophore distances from the same DNA strand by simply adding the appropriate complementary strand. The porphyrin based FRET system (denoted 1P) comprises of a zinc porphyrin (donor, D) and a free-base porphyrin (acceptor, A), where the porphyrins are attached either via a rigid alkynyl linker or a more flexible propargyl-amide linker.10 The rigid alkynyl linker ensures that the chromophores have a low diffusional mobility and remain in a well oriented environment, particularly in terms of the transition dipole moment, introduced in order to study the influence of the porphyrin distance and angle on the electronic coupling compared to the flexible linker. As a control system, we have also synthesised the analogous FAM and TAMRA labelled switch strand (denoted 1F). Because this FRET pair is tethered via a longer and more flexible linker, the angular dependence on the FRET efficiency should in ideal cases be eliminated (κ2 = 2/3).

Fig. 1 Schematic of the adjustable hairpin loops with DNA sequences. The red and blue markers indicate attachment of FRET pairs.

Designers blend bacteria and organic technology into conceptual ‘grow to wear’ space suit line

DECEMBER 3, 201410:49AM

Extreme organic … Clothing, made of living matter — such as bacteria — that can process wastes into useful products. Picture: Yoram Reshef/Stratasys/Neri Oxman

Jamie SeidelNews Corp Australia Network

BACTERIAL bodices and digestive dacks? It’s life, but not as we know it.

A designer’s quest to build a better space suit has inspired a new line of bacterial spacewear: Second skins intended to shock, impress — and survive.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Neri Oxman, who specialises in design, technology and biology, sparked the thought experiment through her quest to find ways to make the ultimate recyclable clothing for space travellers living out of less than a suitcase.

a unified approach to grown structures

Her solution: A series of synthetic “wearable skins” that can be tailored for any size or style — and 3D printed from recyclable materials. Part of her concept was for the suits to support biological processes capable of converting various gases and wastes into useful products — such as food.

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“The future of wearables lies in designing augmented extensions to our own bodies that will blur the boundary between the environment and ourselves,” Professor Oxman said in a press release.

Picture: Yoram Reshef/Neri OxmanSource:Supplied

“Each piece intends to hold life sustaining elements contained within 3D printed vascular structures with internal cavities, made possible with … 3D printing technology. “

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“Living matter within these structures will ultimately transform oxygen for breathing, photons for seeing, biomass for eating, biofuels for moving and calcium for building.”

Her organic designs featured in an art exhibition in Frankfurt late last month.

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

The idea got another pair of designers — Christopher Bader and Dominik Kolb — thinking.

Why not make the whole suit of bacteria?

It’d be the ultimate “grow to wear” line.

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It would also be an ideal answer for spacefarers struggling to justify every ounce of weight and struggling to recycle the byproducts of human life.

So why not start out with a single bacterial cell which can grow into a suit — feeding off waste and processing harmful gases, all while keeping an astronaut’s modesty intact?

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

“We designed a computational growth process which is capable of producing a wide variety of growing structures,” Kolb told art and technology blog The Creators Project. “Starting with a seed, the process simulates growth by continuously expanding and refining its shape.”

After working with Oxman, the team have published what they say are four ‘workwear’ designs for exploring the outer planets.

@JamieSeidel

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

Source: DeskriptivSource:Supplied

Celestial bodies orbiting primary autonomous terra-formed asteroids and comets in the Öpik–Oort cloud ecology for an over-human race.

Germany has the largest outbound tourist trade in the world, with Germans spending about €80 billion annually to travel abroad (the United States is second), in spite of Germany being fourth in world in GDP and fourteenth in population. Germany also has the eighth largest inbound tourist trade, with receipts of around €24 billion.

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The German-Russian pidgin is a macaronic language of mixed German and Russian that appears to have arisen in the early 1990s. It is sometimes known as Deutschrussischin German or Nemrus in Russian. Some speakers of the mixed language refer to it as Quelia. It is spoken by some russophone immigrants in Germany from the former Soviet Union.

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