Let’s Learn About Client-Side Web Development

Nuwan Chamikara
Apr 28 · 16 min read

❇️❇️❇️What is client side programming ??? 🤔🤔🤔

— Client-side Programming :It is the program that runs on the client machine (browser) and deals with the user interface/display and any other processing that can happen on client machine like reading/writing cookies.

Figure — Client Side Development

1) Interact with temporary storage
2) Make interactive web pages
3) Interact with local storage
4) Sending request for data to server
5) Send request to server
6) work as an interface between server and user

The Programming languages for client-side programming are :
1) Javascript
2) VBScript
4) CSS

❇️❇️❇️Main elements of client-side application components of distributed systems

All websites run on three components:
the server,
the database,
the client.
The client is simply the browser a person is using to view a site, and it’s where client-side technology is unpacked and processed. The server is at a remote location anywhere in the world — housing data, running a site’s back-end architecture, processing requests, and sending pages to the browser. The client is anywhere our users are viewing our site: mobile devices, laptops, or desktop computers. Server-side scripting is executed by a web server; client-side scripting is executed by a browser.

❇️❇️❇️Views development technologies for the browser-based client-components of web-based applications

The front-end components enable the user’s interaction with the application. In the context of web apps, such interaction occurs in the browser and is possible thanks to the following components:

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) defining the structure of the information presented in the browser
  • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) determining the style of the application content (colors, fonts, and layouts)
  • JavaScript enabling the interactivity of the web page in which the app is running

The majority of web applications are built with Bootstrap as the framework for HTML and CSS. It is considered the most comprehensive library with a great user base and thousands of stars on GitHub. While Bootstrap is the most popular framework, it is not the only one on the market. As an alternative, you can also consider Foundation, which is the second-most used after Bootstrap and shows good performance.

The sector of JavaScript components is a field of fierce competition of front-end frameworks, the leaders being Angular and React. Both are known for their high performance and flexibility, and both have huge armies of supporters and contributors. Moreover, both of them perform equally well regardless of the tools used on the back-end.

While these two frameworks still dominate the market of front-end development, developers are considering Vue.js as the alternative more and more often. Vue.js earns points for its lightweight structure and versatility.

❇️❇️❇️Controller development technologies for the browser-based client-components of web-based applications

1) Angularjs

Figure — Angular

If you are a bit updated about the latest web development technologies, then Angularjs is a familiar name to you. Angular is a JavaScript open-source framework which was designed particularly for single-page web applications using MVC architectural pattern. It is not a full-stack, but a front-end framework dealing basically with your webpages.

After the release of Angular 2, a complete revamp of the first version, this framework created a lot of hype. Now, they have come up with Angular 4 (skipping 3) and that’s even better. Hence, this Google product is well deserved to stay in the top web development framework’s list and consider this a crucial part of your next web development project.

2) Laravel

Figure — Laravel

When we talk about backend web development frameworks, Laravel comes up front. From it’s inception in 2011, Laravel has shown bright path to developers. Laravel is a free, open-source PHP web framework, intended for building state-of-the-art web applications following the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern.

Some of the features of Laravel are a modular packaging system with a dedicated dependency manager, utilities that aid in application deployment and maintenance, many ways for accessing relational databases, and its orientation toward syntactic sugar. These are some of the reasons why it’s considered to be the best PHP framework and push businesses to hire Laravel developers for their next project.

3) React.js

Figure — React

ReactJS is an open source, JavaScript library maintained by Facebook along with a large developers’ community. This library(Also convertable to a web development framework) is used extensively in developing user interface for web applications. This particular framework was invented with a purpose of building large applications with data that changes again and again over time.

Moreover, React is coming up with something really interesting in near future termed as React Fibre. It is an ongoing reimplementation of Reactjs’s core algorithm. It is the culmination of over two years of research by the React team. It can be a big thing for developers in this year among other surprises. Hence, you can count on this library and hire React developers for your next project.

4) Node.js

Figure — Node.js

The main idea of Node.js is to use non-blocking and event-driven I / O so that they remain lightweight and efficient against real-time applications with a large amount of data running on distributed devices. In simple words Node.JS is used for specific reasons to fill particular needs.

Node.js is not just a framework, it is a complete environment. It has been the developer’s favorite for a long time and is expected to stay this way long enough. It helps to create scalable and fast network applications, since it is capable of handling a large number of simultaneous connections with high performance, which provides a high scalability. If you want a complete JavaScript environment with all the tools, the development on Node.js may be ideal for you.

5) Tensorflow

Figure — TensorFlow

Right now, Artificial Intelligence and machine learning are booming rapidly. Be it customer behavior or an image editing app, AI is everywhere. Moreover, AI chatbots are growing very fast and learning more from human interactions.

What can be a better way to build such amazing apps with a JavaScript framework? Yes, Tensorflow is one such framework that helps to build AI apps. It’s easy to use, open source and supported by a large community. Therefore, if you are planning for AI, go for Tensorflow.


Figure — Vue.js

Vue.js is an open-source JavaScript library for developing user interfaces. Vue.js is adoptable and can also function as a web application framework capable of powering advanced single-page applications. It was first released in 2013 and now it has 59600 starts on Github which makes it one of the best web development frameworks all over.

Where Angular itself has 56300 stars on Github and only a four year old framework has surpassed it’s popularity then it must be something. Isn’t it? Hence, you can also try out Vue.js for your next web development project or hire Vue.js developers

❇️❇️❇️Different categories of elements in HTML, proving examples for their use

Main root

Element: <html>

Description : The HTML <html> element represents the root (top-level element) of an HTML document, so it is also referred to as the root element. All other elements must be descendants of this element.

Document metadata

Metadata contains information about the page. This includes information about styles, scripts and data to help software (search engines, browsers, etc.) use and render the page. Metadata for styles and scripts may be defined in the page or link to another file that has the information.

Description: The HTML <base> element specifies the base URL to use for all relative URLs contained within a document. There can be only one <base> element in a document.

Description:The HTML <head> element contains machine-readable information (metadata) about the document, like its title, scripts, and style sheets.

Description: The HTML External Resource Link element (<link>) specifies relationships between the current document and an external resource. This element is most commonly used to link to stylesheets, but is also used to establish site icons (both "favicon" style icons and mobile home screen/app icons) among other things.

Description:The HTML <meta> element represents metadata that cannot be represented by other HTML meta-related elements, like <base>, <link>, <script>, <style> or <title>.

Description: The HTML <style> element contains style information for a document, or part of a document.

Description: The HTML Title element (<title>) defines the document's title that is shown in a browser's title bar or a page's tab.

Sectioning root

Element: <body>
Description: The HTML <body> Element represents the content of an HTML document. There can be only one <body> element in a document.

❇️❇️❇️Importance of CSS, indicating new features of CSS3


By making one change to your website’s CSS style sheet, you can automatically make it to every page of your website. The bigger your website, the more time CSS saves you. And not only does CSS save time, it also ensures that your web pages have consistent styling throughout your site.

Bandwidth Reduction

When CSS separates your website’s content from its design language, you dramatically reduce your file transfer size. Your CSS document will be stored externally, and will be accessed only once when a visitor requests your website. In contrast, when you create a website using tables, every page of your website will be accessed with each visit. Your reduced bandwidth needs will result in a faster load time and could cut your web hosting costs.

Search Engines

CSS is considered a clean coding technique, which means search engines won’t have to struggle to “read” its content. Also, using CSS will leave your website with more content than code — and content is critical to your search engine success.

Browser Compatibility

The recent arrival of Google® Chrome is further evidence that today’s Internet users have more browser options than ever before, which makes browser compatibility a major issue for your website. CSS stylesheets increase your website’s adaptability and ensure that more visitors will be able to view your website in the way you intended.

Viewing Options

Another common web design concern is the increasing need to make websites available for different media. CSS can help you tackle this challenge by allowing the same markup page to be presented in different viewing styles — — for example, you may create a separate stylesheet for print or for a mobile device.

With so many advantages to offer, CSS is a wise choice for web design. If you’re interested in making your website load faster, look better and rank higher, consider using CSS to create a new website or improve an existing website.

❇️❇️❇️The pros and cons of 3 ways of using CSS (inline, internal, external)

1. Inline CSS

First off, we can include CSS directly in our HTML elements. For this, we make use of the style attribute and then we provide properties to it.

<h1 style="color: blue"> Hello world! </h1>

Here we’re giving it the property of color, and setting the value to blue, which results in the following:

We can also set multiple properties inside the style tag if we wanted. However, I don’t want to continue down this path, as things start to get messey if our HTML is cluttered with lots of CSS inside it.

This is why the second method to include CSS was introduced.

2. Internal CSS

The other way to include CSS is using the styleelement in the head section of the HTML document. This is called internal styling.

h1 {
color: blue;

In the style element, we can give the styling to our HTML elements by selecting the element(s) and provide styling attributes. Just like we applied thecolorproperty to the h1 element above.

3. External CSS

The third and most recommended way to include CSS is using an external stylesheet. We create a stylesheet with a .css extension and include its link in the HTML document, like this:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">

In the code above, we have included the link of style.css file using the linkelement. We then write all of our CSS in a separate stylesheet called style.css so that it’s easily manageable.

//style.cssh1 {
color: blue;

This stylesheet can also be imported into other HTML files, so this is great for reusability.

❇️❇️❇️New features in JS version 6

JavaScript ES6 made huge strides in making JavaScript more user friendly. It implemented features that developers expect from a modern language, and a few that just make programmers’ lives easier. These are the best new features to come to JavaScript with ES6.

✅✅✅ Default Parameters ✅✅✅

ES6 Default Parameters.

It’s pretty standard practice to set default parameters to automatically fill in key values of a function, but up until ES6, the option wasn’t available in JavaScript. Instead, you needed to define your own default values with a hack of sorts within the function itself. With ES6, though, you have the option of setting default parameters like you would in most other languages.

Before ES6:

function multiply(x, y){
var a = x || 1;
var b = y || 1;
return a*b;

After ES6:

function multiply(x=1,y=1){
return x*y;

✅✅✅ Template Literals ✅✅✅

ES6 Template Literals.

Template literals are yet another major convenience when working with strings. Template literals are another feature common in other language that allows you to plug variables directly into strings. Prior to ES6, you needed to rely on somewhat messy string concatenation to achieve a similar effect, and resulting code was anything but clean.

Before ES6:

var greeting = "Hello " + first + " " + last +"! Welcome back!";

After ES6:

var greeting = "Hello ${first} ${last}! Welcome back!";

✅✅✅ Multi-line Strings ✅✅✅

ES6 Multi-line Strings.

Multi-line strings may not be a major usability factor, but they’re a very nice convenience, especially when working with a lot of text. With JavaScript being a web language, text processing is common, so any kind of usability improvement there can be a big deal. Like with template literals, the effect of multi-line strings was achieved with string concatenation prior to ES6. Now, you can get multi-line strings by encapsulating the whole thing between two backticks.

Before ES6:

var multiline = "This string sort of\n"
+ "like a multi-line string,\n"
+ "but it's not really one."

After ES6:

var multiline = `This on the other hand,
actually is a multi-line string,
thanks to JavaScript ES6`

✅✅✅ Block Scope for Let and Const ✅✅✅

ES6 Block Scope.

Before ES6, blocks didn’t really do anything to variables. Everything was global with var, and it still is, but let and const provide ways to declare and assign variables within the scope of a block. Let behaves mostly like var, but with scope. Const is an immutable constant, but because it’s scoped, you can reuse the same constant in different blocks, and they won’t interfere.

Before ES6:

function scopetest{
var x = 10;
var x = 100;
var x = "This is a string even!";
return x;

It actually returns the string!

After ES6:

function scopetest{
let x = 10;
let x = 100;
let x = "This is a string even!";
return x;

The original value gets returned this time because it’s the only one declared in the same scope. Sure, these are contrived examples, but it should be clear how using scoping with let can be useful.

✅✅✅ True Classes ✅✅✅

ES6 Classes.

JavaScript ES6 finally brings true object oriented class design to JavaScript, complete with the ‘class’ and ‘constructor’ keywords. ES6 also brought with it an easy way to inherit from one class to another using the ‘extends’ keywords. Now, JavaScript behaves much more similarly to other object oriented languages.

You can now create and extend classes in ES6 like this:

class Book {
constructor(title, author, pages) {
this.title = title;
this.author = author;
this.pages = pages;
function getPageCount() {
return this.pages;
function getAuthor() {
return this.author;
function getTitle() {
return this.title;
class Novel extends Book {
constructor(title, author, pages, genre) {
super(title, author, pages);
this.genre = genre;
function getGenre() {
return this.genre;
let book = new Novel('The Hobbit', 'J.R.R. Tolkien', 310, 'Fantasy');

✅✅✅ New Array Functions ✅✅✅

ES6 Array Functions.

Generally speaking, array functions usually aren’t necessary in a language, but they do make things simpler. These helper functions cut down on the overall bulk of your code and save you from writing and rewriting similar patterns. So, while array helper functions won’t make or break your code, they actually might help stop you from breaking your code.

✅✅✅ forEach ✅✅✅

This one doesn’t follow the pattern you probably think, “for x in array,” but it can be used in a similar way. It iterates over an array and passes the values from that array into a designated function.

var numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
function timesTwo(number){


Map functions are reasonably common. They allow you to perform an action to each element in an array, and create a new array containing the results.

var numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
function timesTwo(number){
return number*2;
var doubleNumbers = numbers.map(timesTwo);


The ‘filter’ function checks each element in an array to see if it meets a certain condition and adds it to a new array if it does. In doing so, it creates a new subset of the original array.

var numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
function isOdd(number){
if(number % 2){
return number;
var oddNumbers = numbers.filter(isOdd);

There are several more array functions added with ES6, like every, some, and find, but these are probably the ones you’ll use most.

✅✅✅Arrow Functions✅✅✅

ES6 Arrow Functions.

If you’ve worked with Coffeescript, you should be familiar with arrow functions. They’ve now made their way to mainstream JavaScript with ES6.

Arrow functions have two major benefits that most people will use them for. First, they simplify your syntax and cut down on the overall amount of code you need to write for a function. Next, they keep ‘this’ from changing. It will remain in the same scope as the function using it, making it much more effective for DOM interactions, like button presses.

A basic function:

var timesTwo = number => number*2;

The arrow function uses the parameters in line and relies on an implicit return statement. This works with different numbers of parameters, too.

var multiply = (x, y) => x*y;

Because of the lightweight syntax, arrow functions are also a great option for anonymous functions.

For ‘this,’ you also have an easier time because there isn’t any worry about mutation or losing scope.

$('.btnSend').click((event) => {

The overall syntax is simplified.

✅✅✅Improved Object Literals✅✅✅

ES6 Object Literals.

Object literals also received a readability boost. It might not be as extreme as some of the other improvements, but it definitely helps. Previously, you had to restate your variables to associate them with the properties of an object. Now, JavaScript associates the value with the variable name automatically.

Before ES6:

function showBookInfo(title, author, genre){
return {
title: title,
author: author,
genre: genre

console.log(showBookInfo(“The Hobbit”, “J.R.R. Tolkien”, “Fantasy”));

After ES6:

function showBookInfo(title, author, genre) {
return {
console.log(showBookInfo("The Hobbit", "J.R.R. Tolkien", "Fantasy"));

It’s not a huge difference, but it definitely helps.


ES6 Destructuring.

Destructuring is much less complicated than it sounds. It’s a shorthand way to pull variables and their associated values out of objects and arrays. In JavaScript ES5, you’d have to write out the name of the object you’re pulling the values from each time you wanted to create a new variable.

Before ES6:

var randomData = {a: 12, b: false, c: 'blue'};
var a = randomData.a;
var c = randomData.c;

With destructuring, you don’t need to write it all out.

After ES6:

var randomData = {a: 12, b: false, c: 'blue'};
var {a, c} = randomData;

The variables ‘a’ and ‘c’ will both be created from the data stored in the object.


ES6 Promises.

Promises are in sort of an odd place. Of everything on this list, they’re the only thing that actually increases the line count of your code. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, though. Promises aim to build an infrastructure for asynchronous code. They’re meant to simplify things in the long run. That said, if you’re not writing a bunch of asynchronous code or nesting timeouts, there’s no real reason the old ‘setTimeout’ function won’t work.

Before ES6:

console.log('Timeout's up!');
}, 1000);

After ES6:

var asyncPromise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
console.log('Doing the first thing async...');
}).then(() => {
console.log('Doing something else...');

This is a case of something that may be very useful or not useful at all, depending on what you’re working on.

Thank You All !!!
See you with a New Article !!! 😍😍😍

Figure — End

References :

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