當舉標語打卡拍照也會被警察抓走時When You Could Be Caught for Holding Banners and Taking Pictures

我在國際氣候行動營隊中,看見的環境抗爭故事 What I’ve saw in an international climate activists’

Tony Yen
Tony Yen
Aug 25, 2017 · 8 min read

這是為了投稿CLEW跨國報導進行的初步整理資料。總共會有三個部分,第二部分討論東亞地區共通的能源轉型課題,第三部分討論各國個別經驗。這不是報導的最終定稿,倒可視為作者本身的紀錄。
The following are materials for the trans-boundary climate journalism grant given by CLEW. It will contain three parts; the second part deals with the common challenge of Energiewende in East Asia, and the third part discuss specific experience of each nation. This is not the final form for the journalism; one can regard it as a personal memo of the author himself.

If you do this in Vietnam, you might get arrested >”< (Photo Credit: Hong Hoang)

2017年8月19日,世大運在台北開幕,各國選手以良性體育競爭的方式來台灣進行交流。大約在同一個時間,我剛好在台中參加了一場由350台灣主辦的國際氣候行動者交流營隊~第三屆東亞氣候領袖營(EACLC#3)。
On August 19, 2017, the Universiade began at Taipei; athletics from all over the world came to Taiwan for sports competition. At the same time, I happened to attend an international climate activists’ camp hosted by 350 Taiwan in Taichung, the third East Asia Climate Leader Camp (EACLC).

這次受邀的國家包括了日本、南韓、中國、香港、菲律賓、越南以及印尼,加上台灣總共八個國家的運動人士前來。每個國家都有自己能源轉型的藍圖以及當前主要遇到的困境。深入聊過後才發現,各國的能源轉型過程或有相似、或有牽連,然而彼此還是有些細膩的不同處。我認為,同時呈現營隊期間彼此交流的經驗並結合各國目前政府規劃,是深入了解東亞區域能源轉型狀況很好的方式。這便是這次系列報導的初衷。
The invited nations included Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, Philippine, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Counting the Taiwanese in, there are eight nations where climate activists came from. After a deep talk we realized that while the process of Energiewende within each nation may be similar or related, detailed differences still occur among each other. I therefore consider it a good way to dig deeper into the Energiewende in East Asia via a combination of showing the experience exchange of participants during the camp and how each of the government plans to achieve its goal towards transition. This is the initial idea behind this series of journalism.

與會成員背景分析 Background Analysis of the Attendees

另外,除了一般認知裡的運動工作者或環境團體參與者,印尼來了一位電機系教授和她的大一學生、越南則來了以再生能源政策見長的Green id Vietnam的成員。我其實對於印尼的師生非常欽佩,在台灣理工科系的教授願意支持環境運動就很不易,願意犧牲寶貴的研究時間參加這種提升不了學校國際競爭力的營隊當然更不可能。
In addition, apart from the movement organizers or environmental group participants normally recognized in such kind of event, there was a mech-electrical engineering professor from Indonesia who brought her freshman student alongside, and also a Vietnamese policy researcher who works for the policy-oriented environmental group Green ID Vietnam. I actually admired the professor and the university student from Indonesia a lot. In Taiwan, it is already difficult to find an engineering professor who supports environment movements, not to mention a professor who is willing to sacrifice her precious research time to attend a camp which cannot boost the international competitiveness of the school.

可以說,越南、菲律賓和印尼的參與者面對的是非常明顯的污染和國家機器的鎮壓,相較之下,台灣、南韓、日本的代表很難直接感受到這種赤裸的國家暴力(當然這應該也跟運動參與時間長度有關)。印象很深刻的是菲律賓代表在回機場路上對我說,前一晚娛樂活動他其實根本無心表演(似乎一位少年因為緝毒遭到誤射,菲律賓近日舉國激憤)。另一方面,一位越南代表也分享了去年鬧得沸沸揚揚的台塑-中鋼河靜鋼鐵廠案件中,自己被警方軟禁在家,同時350的夥伴則在某座興建中的燃煤電廠舉布條拍照而被警方拘留6小時的事情。這些都是我們在台灣大概難以想像的狀況。
It can be said that the participants from Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia face obvious pollution and oppression from the state, while in contrast the representatives from Taiwan, South Korea and Japan may find it hard to directly feel such blunt violence (of course, this may also be due to the time span of a person’s involvement in the movement). One of the moments I remember the most was when a participant from the Philippines told me on the way back to the airport that he actually hadn’t had the appetite to join the talent show on the previous night (from what I heard, a teenager was mistakenly shot because of the war on drugs, and the entire nation bursted into anger). On the other hand, it was something quite unimaginable for us in Taiwan, when a Vietnamese participant shared her experience of being house arrested during the Formosa steel factory campaign, while companions from 350 were also being held by the police because they took pictures with their banners in front of a constructing coal power plant simultaneously.

各國的政治制度帶來的明顯差異還烙印在更深層的地方中。從事20年氣候行動的越南代表的年少經驗是對社會主義老大蘇聯的憧憬,而印尼、菲律賓、台灣、南韓則有政府藉反共名義實行獨裁政治、屠殺平民的不光彩歷史。所以營隊裡便出現一邊有人嘲諷共產黨、一邊有人用吉他彈國際歌的有趣情景。
The obvious differences brought by political structures among the nations can be found in deeper places. The Vietnamese participant who joined the climate movement for more than 20 years has a teenager experience of admiration towards the socialist motherland of Soviet Union, whereas the governments of Indonesia, Philippine, Taiwan, and South Korea have a dark history of dictatorial rule and civilian massacring under the name of anti-communism. It is under such historical context why during the camp people mocked the communist party while they also played the Internationale with the guitar in the meantime.

營隊主活動:中火相關設施參訪、各國代表交流Highlights of the Camp: Tour to Taichung Coal Power Plant and Experience Exchange

不過在中火的汙水排放口,大家還是看到了最第一手的汙染狀況:為了處理水中爐渣、重金屬和pH值變異而加入的化學藥劑雖然大幅度地降低了排水對四周海域的汙染,然而本身仍發出一股難聞的惡臭,並且在排水口附近產生了異樣的土色。這樣的景象依舊讓許多參與者十分震驚。
Nevertheless, the attendees still witnessed the pollution situation first hand when they arrived at the wastewater disposal pipe of the plant. The chemicals added into the wastewater neutralize most of the slag, heavy metals, and the pH anomaly of the water and thus reduce the pollution to the surrounding ocean, but they themselves smell and cause a bizarre-looking muddy color near the pipe. Such view shocked many participants.

The wastewater pipe for Taichung coal power plant (Photo credit: Umika Yukisita)

我們也在儲煤場附近待一陣子。中火和中龍鋼鐵是台中市最大的固定汙染源,卸煤碼頭旁偌大的儲煤場供應著兩個廠區運作過程最重要的資源。運煤渣的貨車不時從我們身旁經過,偶爾一兩塊小碎屑掉在地上,俯拾即是。對當地居民來說,煤渣和儲煤場產生的揚塵(PM10)是最明顯干擾生活的空氣汙染物,因此不斷地要求儲煤場和運渣車做更好的防塵措施。
We also stayed a while near the coal storage facility. The Taichung coal power plant and the dragon steel factory are the two biggest fixed air pollutant emitter in Taichung; the storage facility besides the coal port supplies the most important resource needed in both of the emitters. The trucks which transport the coal cinder out of the area frequently passed by in front of us, and left a chalk or two of the ashes on the ground from time to time, which we found to be everywhere nearby. For the locals, the dust (PM10) due to the coal cinder and storage facility is what mostly disturbing their daily life, and therefore they have been urging for a better dust protection measure taken by the facility and the trucks.

彰濱工業區的參訪則是另外一個有趣的經驗。即使就在工業區旁,海邊仍然有不少養蚵人家和業餘釣手。他們對於腳底下踩的海埔新生地是煤渣傾倒出來的事情毫不知曉,當然也對於前陣子環團擔心鋼鐵業爐渣、燃煤電廠煤渣回收利用的潛在汙染並不清楚。
Visiting the industrial zone of coastal Chunghwa was another interesting experience. There were many oyster farmers and amateur fishermen at the beach, even though the industrial zone is just nearby. They knew nothing about the fact that where they stood was made out partly of coal cinder, and of course were uninformed of the worries environmental groups expressed on the potential pollution steel slag or coal cinder recycling might cause.

除了參訪和訪問當地環團以外,營隊還有各國代表交流的時間。這中間用了類似科展的形式,不同團體畫出海報,向有興趣駐足聆聽的人講述自己的故事。
Apart from the field trip and interviewing local environmental groups, there was also a section for the participants to exchange experience. A fair was held, where different groups drew their posters and told the stories of them to those who stopped to listen.

我是因為過去一個學年在台大參與的各個永續倡議被邀請到這次的營隊,因此主要分享的也是這一年的故事。半小時的過程只有一個越南代表跟香港代表有來找我。讓我備感訝異的是原來香港的公立大學沒有義務公開帳目明細,因此香港代表在做學校的投資盤點時苦於無資料可用。非常欣慰台灣的經驗可以被他們帶回去做比較。
I was invited to this camp because of my involvement of several proposals regarding a sustainable campus at National Taiwan University during the last school year, and that was what I mainly shared. In the half hour event only a Vietnamese participant and a Hong-Kongnese participant came to me. What surprised me was that state-owned universities in Hong Kong don’t have the obligation to disclose their budget details, meaning that 350 Hong Kong are having a hard time finding data when they try to examine the investment situation of their schools. I was glad that experience from Taiwan became something they could bring back and compare with.

插曲:限電、中火抗爭、世大運年改抗爭Unintended Episodes: The Power Limit, a Protest over Taichung Plant, and a Protest during the opening of the Universiade

第一個當然是815大限電,以及之後網路上試圖將管理失策導致的限電怪罪於核能退役的聲浪。這當中引起他國參與者最大不解之處在於為何主婦聯盟會因反核立場而遭受到部分網友利用性別歧視的語句侮辱;不過這或多或少呼應了營隊一開始,菲律賓代表將環境運動和性別運動、種族平權運動、宗教平權運動結合看待的開場白(「希望各位在這裡,不論國籍、種族、性別認同、宗教信仰,都能自在地表達自己」)。
The first is of course the nationwide power limit occurred on 15th of August, and the voices attempting to connect the ill-management-caused power limit with the government’s decision to phase out nuclear. Among the event, one thing troubles the foreign participants the most: why did the homemaker alliance keep getting sexual-harassing insult from the net trolls because of its anti-nuclear position? It however echoed what a Philippine participant said in the opening section of the camp, which emphasized how environmental movements are highly connected with gender, race and religious equality movements. “I hope that everyone, no matter your nationality, your race, your gender identity or your religion, can find it comfortable to express yourself here.” was about the thing he said that night.

另一方面伴隨著限電而來、由顏寬恆組織的中火抗爭,也引起營隊中一陣討論。「黑道勢力為什麼要支持地方居民反對火力發電廠?」一位印尼代表問我,我則盡力解釋台灣的地方政治以及地方和中央之間的角力。
Meanwhile, a protest right after the power limit on the Taichung coal power plant organized by Yen (顏寬恆), one of the head family members of the local gangster, also caused great discussion in the camp. “Why does the gangster support the local’s stance against the plant?” A participant from Indonesia asked me, while I tried my best to explain to her the local politics in Taiwan, and how local and central governments sometimes wrestle each other.

對於世大運反年改團體杯葛議程的新聞,各國代表當下的反應竟然是歡呼、鼓掌,甚至開始熱切討論2020東京奧運能不能用類似的形式做化石燃料撤資的訴求。
As for the news of anti-pension reformation group boycotting the opening of Universiade, the instant reaction of the participants was unbelievably cheering, applauding and discussing enthusiastically how the calls for fossil fuel divestment can be made similar during the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

仔細一想,在國外對老年津貼的抗爭聽起來就是一個會和進步運動結合的議題,而且對於運動者來說這種杯葛會場的抗爭形式老實說絲毫沒有不妥。因為實在太過複雜,我並沒有解釋公務員退休金制度過去象徵的黨國恩庇制度,也沒有解釋在其他議題上反年改團體採取反動立場遭致的失道寡助局面。相對來說,台灣代表在事件發生後馬上預設這是一件國恥、家醜不宜外揚的心態,也有些過度緊張了。
But should a Taiwanese think deeper, s/he should realize that anti-pension reformation is an issue commonly connected with other progressive movements abroad, and the means the group has taken shouldn’t be considered inappropriate for an organizer. Of course the issue is too complicated, so I gave up explaining how the pension of government agents used to represent a privilege system given by a party-ruled state; neither did I told them what reactionary stances these anti-reformists have taken on other issues, causing their loss of support among the progressives. Still, I found some other Taiwanese somehow overreacted when directly assuming the boycott as a national disgrace and shouldn’t let the outsiders know too much about it.

The anti-reformation groups boycotting the openings of Universiade (Photo from UDN)

第一部份結束。剩下兩個部份將和系列報導的企劃在近日刊出。
This is the end of part one. The remaining two parts will be released soon, along with the proposal of the serial journalism.

Tony Yen

Written by

Tony Yen

A Taiwanese student who studies in the master program of Renewable Energy Engineering and Management in University of Freiburg.