當韓國人想要東京鐵塔時 When the Koreans wanted the Tokyo Tower

我在國際氣候營隊,看到的區域性能源轉型競合關係 The Entangled-relationship of east Asian Nations in Energy Transition I saw in an international climate activists’

這是為了投稿CLEW跨國報導進行的初步整理資料的第二部分。 
The following is the second part of the materials for the trans-boundary climate journalism grant given by CLEW.

各國在化石燃料投資的角色 Roles in Fossil Fuel Investment of the Nations

自創立以來,350一直以推動全球性撤資運動為核心倡議。在東亞區域,日本、香港和中國的金融業對於化石燃料投資貢獻最高,他們主要的燃煤電廠投資集中在越南和印尼。日本和香港是因為高度發展的經濟使金融業有鉅額投資,而中國的投資則必須考量近年來亞投行、一帶一路等整體國家政策下對於東亞區域基礎建設所欲發揮的影響力。當然,中國國內燃煤電廠的環保標準日益提升、建廠總量日益限制的情況下,既有產業和投資也因此開始出走海外,尋找其他機會。 
Since the beginning, pushing the campaign for a global divestment from fossil fuel has been the main call for 350. In the east Asia region, financial sector in Japan, Hong Kong, and China has the highest contribution to fossil fuel investment; their investment in coal power plants mainly focuses on Vietnam and Indonesia. Japan and Hong Kong has a high amount of investment due to their highly developed economy, while China’s investment is in line with AIIB, new silk road plan, and other national policies which aim to show influence in infrastructure construction upon east Asia region. Of course, as China gradually tightens its environmental standards on domestic coal power plants and constrains its overall construction capacity, the existing industry and investment will correspondingly go aboard and find other opportunities.

這樣子因為經濟發展、國力不同而產生的不平衡關係,在營隊中也可以被細緻地觀察到;因為大部分的區域內燃煤電廠投資都由日本企業進行,350日本是最早成立也享有最多資源和具體成果的分支;在故事分享之後日本代表也表達了「其實我們當中還是有許多差異性,日本的銀行投資海外化石燃料產業賺取利益由日本國民享受,對環境的傷害卻是由其他國家承擔,這也讓我們意識到撤資運動跨國合作的必要性和重要性。」之類的概念。 
The imbalanced relationship due to different economical and national strength can also be meticulously observed in the camp. Because most of the regional investments in coal power plants are conducted by Japanese companies, 350 Japan became the first branch to be set up and enjoyed the most resources and achievements within the region. After the story-telling sector, the representatives from Japan also expressed something similar to the following: “Even we are all together here, there still exist differences among us; Japan’s banks invest foreign fossil fuel and the Japanese share some of the profits, while other nations suffer from the environmental damages. It makes us realize the importance and necessity of a regional divestment movement.”

東亞各國由於區域內相互投資產生的藕合關係,在營隊中還有另外一項遊戲讓學員得以體會。在情境互動遊戲「Village」中,各國先用海報紙畫出自己理想的村落樣貌。接著,在各國分享了自己的村落樣貌之後,代表們告知會有十分鐘的時間可以修改自己的海報。此時其實是遊戲中的反派腳色-外來者到各個村莊,對村落的發展提出建議、強行干涉,並且自作主張和其他村落進行設施的交易(有時甚至利用詐欺手段)。這些做法雖然讓人聯想到國際間投資行為,但當利益當前時,某些組別仍然做出犧牲其他組別的選擇(比如南韓對於獲得東京鐵塔就非常高興)。玩完這遊戲後,其實我們台灣代表的情緒是非常沉重的,也出現許多層次的想法進行交流,包括:為何外來者進行各種隨意設置再生能源提議當下,沒有意識到事情的嚴重性或嚴正抗議、為何不跟其他村落直接交流,確認外來者提供的交易資訊是否正確。這些問題反映在現實面,就是組織者有所為/有所不為的抉擇,以及串連的必要性的困難度。 
The entangled-relationship among east Asian nations due to regional investments could also be shown during another game in the camp. In the interactive game “Village”, participants from each nation drew their ideal village at first. After the nations shared their village to the others, they were given ten minutes to modify their poster. The ten minutes, in fact, was designed for the villains of the game, the visitors, to visit each of the villages. The visitors would give advice and interfere the village’s development, and would also make trading deals with other villages without the consensus of the villagers beforehand, which sometimes even involved fraud. Although these behaviors could be easily connected to international investment activities, many groups still made decisions that sacrificed the interests of the others (for instance, the south Koreans were very happy when they got the Tower). After the game the Taiwanese were actually very upset, and discussed thoughts of many layers. They included: why didn’t anyone realize the severe situation of the issue and protest seriously when the visitors proposed building renewables at their will; why didn’t directly communicate with other villages and confirm the validity of the trade information given by the visitors. In real life, this questions reflects the decision to/ not to act as an organizer, and the necessity but also the difficulties of coordination.

(額外補充:幾天之後在另一個營隊,我再度玩同樣的遊戲,只是變成以隊輔的身分參與;此時面臨的掙扎在於要介入遊戲進行多少,比如是否協助和其他組別聯繫、是否協助組員呈立自救會抗議等等,事後反省頗類似組織者進入新社區時需進行的抉擇) 
(Additional footnote: A few days later in another camp, I played the very same game, this time however, as a group assistant. The struggle then was how much I should get involved; should I help the villagers to communicate with others? Should I help the villagers organize a protest? It somehow resembles the decisions an organizer is asked to make in a new community.)

“Village” Photo Credit: Silver

一個營隊中並沒有提及但我認為值得討論的事情:東亞各國除了有區域內化石燃料產業投資,也跟區域外化石燃料產業也有密切關聯。比如說,澳洲的煤礦出口中,日本、南韓、台灣就佔了70%。可以想見,東亞區域能源轉型對於世界其他地區的影響將十分劇烈。 
One thing that was not mentioned but I still think would worth discussing in the camp was the relationship of east Asian nations and fossil fuel industry beyond the region. As an example, 70 percent of Australia’s coal export goes to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan; it is very easy to see how drastic the change would be for other regions of the world by the Energiewende of East Asia.

營隊中確立的區域性目標 Regional Goals Made during the Camp

營隊中確立了350東亞區域接下來三年的區域性目標。各國代表在討論出目標的過程中,受到了各自運動參與經驗和各國政策密切影響。 
During the camp, the regional goals of 350 East Asia were also decided. Participants were highly affected by their own organizing experience and their nation’s policies.

比如說,中國和香港代表提出2020年以前促使亞投行取消針對燃煤發電廠的基礎建設投資;南韓代表則提出2020年以前促使首爾市再生能源佔電力比例達到100%的目標。如何整合出一個具有意義的區域性目標而非只侷限在各自國家的議題中,成了討論的重點。最後,營隊把各種意見匯聚成幾個大主題:階段性除煤、區域氣候行動等方向被列入其中。 
For example, participants from China and Hong Kong proposed to have AIIB cancel infrastructure investments on coal power plants by 2020, and the South Koreans proposed to have Seoul achieve 100% renewable electricity. It was therefore a key point to integrate all the proposals into meaningful regional goals instead of isolating them within each nation during the discussion. In the end, the proposals were combined into several main topics; among them, were a gradual coal phase-out and a regional climate action.

A member of South Korea environmental group GEYK sharing the future goals of Korea’s Energiewende Photo credit: Silver

這些區域性目標中,阻止燃煤機組裝置容量增加可能最為困難。那是因為目前各國都有新建燃煤電廠的計畫。不過,近日也有不少好消息。比如說中國和越南都在近兩年內取消了大量燃煤電廠新建計畫、日本在福島核災後成功地讓再生能源比例持續增加、台灣和南韓則將持續汰換老舊電廠並且通過新的調度思維降低燃煤發電比例。對環團來說,透過適當的時機掌握和議題操作,有機會加速各國已經存在的減煤時程。例如前述亞投行取消燃煤電廠投資的建議,就可能需要東南亞各國和中國氣候網絡的串連才有機會提出;這可能需要同時推動其他區域性目標來輔助達成。 
Of all the regional goals, preventing additional coal power capacity may be the most difficult. It is because all of the nations currently have plans to build new coal power plants. Nevertheless there are also good news recently. China and Vietnam have been cancelling substantial plans of building new coal power plants, Japan has been successfully increasing its electricity share of renewables ever since Fukushima, while Taiwan and South Korea will continue to mothball older power plants and introduce new dispatch mindset to reduce the proportion of coal use in electricity. For environmental groups, the timeline of coal phase-out could be accelerated with proper timing and measures. For instance, the advice of having AIIB cancel its investments in coal power plants mentioned previously might only have a chance after the climate networks of both southeast Asia and China coordinate. To achieve this, other regional goals mentioned in the camp must also be achieved.

第二部份結束。系列報導的企劃在近日刊出。 
This is the end of part two. The proposal of the serial journalism will be released soon.

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