The Quick and Dirty on Your Dry CleaningThe Facts
Dry cleaning, despite its name, is not a dry process; it actually involves the use of a chemical liquid, perchloroethylene, also known as PERC or PCE. PERC is a powerful anti-stain agent used by approximately 80% of the 30,000 dry cleaners in America primarily because it gets rid of stains without damaging fabric. PERC would be magic if not for the fact that health and environmental agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, have classified it a toxic chemical, specifically the type that is a “possible to probable human carcinogen!” This nasty chemical has also been linked to nervous system, cognitive, and reproductive impairments resulting from long-term exposure. Cutting out PERC is a no-brainer, and the availability of accessible alternatives has never made the decision easier.
Professional Wet Cleaning
Most clothes labeled dry clean can actually be wet cleaned, which involves the use of water and non-toxic biodegradable detergent in specialized equipment. Wet cleaning uses no toxic agents, leaves no residue on clothes, uses water and energy less intensively than traditional dry cleaning, and releases no harmful pollutants into the environment. Because wet cleaning equipment is affordable, small businesses can acquire the necessary technology, resulting in a greater availability of wet cleaners around the country. To ensure that your wet cleaner is not using any chemical solvents, make sure to ask if their cleaning process is water-based.
Carbon Dioxide Cleaning
CO2 cleaning involves pressurizing carbon dioxide into a liquid that is used alongside other non-toxic agents to clean clothes. The CO2 in this process is an industrial byproduct, so this cleaning method does not introduce new greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the machinery involved allows for the liquid CO2 to be reused, creating an efficient loop that lessens the release of leftover CO2 into the air. The CO2 method has been shown to be highly effective, with one Consumer Reports study concluding that it outperformed even wet cleaning. However, CO2 cleaning is not as widely available because the machinery is still expensive, so you might not find a nearby service depending on where you live.
Washing By Hand and Machine According to our friends at the Laundress, many clothes labeled dry clean can be washed at home, and there are plenty of online resources to help you determine whether and how to wash certain fabrics yourself. For example, light colored silks can be washed by hand in cold water using light soap and then air-dried. Wool and cashmere sweaters can be sorted by color and washed by hand or in the machine’s delicate cycle and then laid flat to dry. We’re excited that you’ll be able to purchase the Laundress Wool and Cashmere washing products here at Zady just in time for sweater season.
Eco-Friendly Dry Cleaners The final option is to carry on dry cleaning, hold the PERC, with an important caveat. Eco-friendly dry cleaners substitute PERC with other agents to clean clothes. Some of those cleaning agents, including silicon-based Siloxane D5 and petroleum-based hydrocarbon solvents, may not be as toxic as PERC, but there is evidence to suggest that they may have their own health and environmental impacts.,
Further Greening your Dry Cleaning
In addition to its chemical impact, dry cleaning also produces packaging waste resulting from disposable hangers and plastic bags. According to the US Department of Commerce, 3.5 billion wire hangers end up in landfills each year. One way to reduce your dry cleaning footprint is to bring your hangers back to your dry cleaner for reuse. You’ll be diverting these hangers from the landfill, and your dry cleaner will appreciate the opportunity to reuse them. There are also a number of dry cleaners across the country that provide hanger recycling. When it comes to plastic, dry cleaning bags are usually plastic #2 or #4, which can be recycled across the country at various recycling centers and retailers, including very often Whole Foods and Target. Finally, you can always ask your dry cleaner not to package your clean clothes in plastic
Have you experimented with any alternatives to traditional dry cleaning? Do you have any tips? Stories to share? We’d love to hear about your adventures in dry cleaning.
Nadine Farag studied global health and development at Harvard University. At Zady, she is digging into sustainability in the fashion industry, with a focus on integrating enhanced social and environmental standards into the supply chain.
Originally published at zady.com on June 18, 2015.