When our kids were young (part home-schooled, part not) we always thought it important to teach them a “healthy disrespect for authority”. “Healthy” doesn’t mean automatic or inevitable, it means that even someone (or organization) in authority still has to earn your respect. When they tell you to do something, or believe something, the default response is not “ok” but rather “why?”. Only after they have earned your respect can the default become “ok”, with “why?” always a viable alternative. At the same time, its important to be aware that “authority” can be dangerous and must sometimes be managed with care.
I think your teacher, reinforced by your father, unwittingly taught you pretty much exactly the right lessons.