Some data visualisations can be perceived as something more than figurative representations of numerical or statistical analyses, and certain examples of infographics give us something more than simply visual information. Often it is the design that fascinates us, and even the idea it expresses. Sometimes it is also the objective that fascinates us. In the history of data visualisations, there are some examples which stand out in that way, and constantly arouse such attentions.

Between 1809 and 1812 Napoleon enjoyed his greatest moment of power. The Napoleonic Empire was spread over much of Europe. …

Oscar Rojo

This is a simple demonstration of finding the shortest path between two nodes on a map

Abstract OpenStreetMap provides freely accessible and editable geographic data. The osmar package smoothly integrates the OpenStreetMap project into the R ecosystem. The osmar package provides infrastructure to access OpenStreetMap data from different sources, to enable working with the OSM data in the familiar R idiom, and to convert the data into objects based on classes provided by existing R packages. This paper explains the package’s concept and shows how to use it. As an application we present a simple navigation device. Introduction

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Anscombe’s quartet comprises four data sets that have nearly identical simple descriptive statistics, yet have very different distributions and appear very different when graphed. Each dataset consists of eleven (x,y) points. They were constructed in 1973 by the statistician Francis Anscombe to demonstrate both the importance of graphing data before analyzing it and the effect of outliers and other influential observations on statistical properties. He described the article as being intended to counter the impression among statisticians that “numerical calculations are exact, but graphs are rough.

The objectives of this problem set is to orient you to a number of…

“You won’t go to bed without knowing something else” is a saying that refers to the idea that every day we learn something new.

This phrase highlights the nature of our lifelong learning, which is continuous and unstoppable, which increases day by day with small things: a new activity, information we didn’t know, a different way of looking at things.

The saying implies that every day we must increase a little more our knowledge about things, that we must not waste time but use it to know new things.

This phrase is generally used to express that we have learned…

The R sqldf package allows us to execute SQL statements. The clauses, the expressions, the predicates,… are the salvation for many mediocre types such as the now-writer. sqldf is an indispensable module, even Falete’s boyfriend is able to program in SQL.

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Obviously I’m not going to teach you how to do queries, but I do want to show you some of the possibilities that this R package offers. “e will work with examples.

# Detach package
# detach("package:some_package", unload = TRUE)
# Clean the working memory
rm(list = ls())
# Gargabe colector
# gc()
# Set working directory

On July 19th “La Liga Santander” season 2019/2020 ended. It was, for obvious and extra-sporting reasons, the longest in the history of the competition. The first match was played on August 16, 2019, at San Mamés, with Athletic winning 1–0 over Barcelona thanks to Aritz Aduriz’s Chilean goal. Between that match and the last day, 338 days passed.

Photo by Tevarak Phanduang on Unsplash

On July 19th “La Liga Santander” season 2019/2020 ended. It was, for obvious and extra-sporting reasons, the longest in the history of the competition. The first match was played on August 16, 2019, at San Mamés, with Athletic winning 1–0 over Barcelona…

A little bit of history

Abacus is a Latin word that has its origins in the Greek words abax or abakon (meaning “table” or “tablet”) which in turn, possibly originated from the Semitic word abq, meaning “sand”. The abacus is one of many types of counting devices which are used to count large numbers. Why does the abacus exist?

It is difficult to imagine counting without numbers, but there was a time when written numbers did not exist. The earliest counting device was the human hand and its fingers, capable of counting up to 10 things; toes were also used to count in tropical cultures…


Till now I’ve not explained what’s EDA and those who have come so far, CONGRATULATIONS!!!, we will now start the EDA process. Heads up before we dive.

• There are no thumb rules for EDA or not we would have a designated template

• It entirely depends on how your data is and the EDA will take up its on course based on your data
• Interrogate the data and it will speak

I’ll try my level best to explain you to get started and consider this as a kick start for any of your EDA.

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So, million-dollar question, What…

An important disclaimer, if you are a kind of person who just reads and move forward then this is not for you. Make sure you have your favourite IDE or Jupyter Notebook or Google Colab open to code along. Believe me it’s very easy to read and when time comes to make your hand dirty, we are like lost. So, there are no other options than practicing the EDA. It will get instill on you muscle memory the more you practice.

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Before we get into details of EDA, let see how to address the data. What I mean here is…

What is a neural network?

Neural networks are one of the main tools used in machine learning. As neural suggests, they are brain-inspired systems which are intended to replicate the way that we humans learn. NNs consist of input and output layers, as well as a hidden layer consisting of units that transform the input.

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They are excellent tools for finding patterns which are far too complex or numerous for a human programmer to extract and teach the machine to recognize.

Steps for this mini-tutorial:

  • Define independent and dependent variables.
  • Define hyper-parameters.
  • Define activation function and the derivative.
  • Train the…

Oscar Rojo

Master in Data Science. Passionate about learning new skills. Former branch risk analyst.

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