How the Inkas Governed, Thrived, and Fell Without Alphabetic Writing

The Inka empire was open-ended, oral, and loosely institutionalised, leaving it vulnerable to the Spanish conquistadores

Aeon Magazine
May 29 · 6 min read
The last emperor, Sapa Inka Atahualpa. Image: Arnoldus Montanus/Wikimedia Commons

By Christopher Given-Wilson

Between the 1430s and the arrival of the Spanish in 1532, the Inkas conquered and ruled an…

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