Challenges and Resistance Towards Smart Education

Smart education (education 4.0) is a teaching, learning, and managing paradigm, where smart technologies (e.g, IoT, AI, 5G etc) are applied to make it more effective and attractive

Afzal Badshah, PhD
Age of Awareness
5 min readAug 1, 2023


Proposed by the author in his paper “Towards Smart Education through the Internet of Things: A Survey” published in ACM Computing Survey has an Impact Factor of more than 14

The implementation of smart education systems comes with its fair share of challenges and resistance, despite the tremendous benefits it offers. These challenges and resistances can be categorized into two main groups: (I) Computational challenges and (II) Social challenges. You can also read the detailed research paper here.

Computational Challenges

In terms of computational challenges, installing and integrating smart systems can be complicated due to network, battery, and communication failures. Malfunctioning built-in functions often require expert assistance, making updates to the system’s code challenging for users.

Internet Connectivity

Smart systems face challenges in areas without internet access or with slow connectivity, hindering their installation and real-time functionality. To address this, fog servers can be utilized. Data can be initially stored on fog computing and gradually uploaded to the cloud, allowing for continued operation even with slow internet speeds.

Privacy Issues

User privacy is a concern in smart services as personal data sharing with service providers and manufacturers can lead to privacy breaches and potential misuse of data by unauthorized individuals. To safeguard data from illegitimate access, authenticated data access is necessary. In smart education, various solutions have been proposed in the literature to address privacy issues.

Author with students at school during winter rain

Compatibility and Interoperability

Compatibility and interoperability of devices pose significant challenges in implementing smart education, particularly at the school level. To overcome these challenges, the education sector can leverage the market potential and expedite the development of EduTech solutions for a commercially viable smart education system, which would address compatibility and interoperability issues.

Data Pollution

Data pollution is a challenge in smart education as learners get distracted by excessive internet usage, particularly social media. To address this, a learners’ monitoring module can be added to track their viewing history transparently, promoting a focused learning environment.

Artificial Intelligence

Trust is a major issue with AI due to its immaturity and potential for incorrect data input. False expressions from students can also mislead AI systems. Moreover, AI implementation may exceed budget limitations. To address these challenges, AI usage should be limited based on budget and accuracy considerations.

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Social Challenges

Turning to social challenges, the lack of familiarity and knowledge among individuals regarding the use of modern technologies can resist the successful implementation of smart education systems. Resistance from employees, particularly teachers, towards real-time monitoring is a significant challenge that can be addressed through incentives and improved communication channels within the smart education system.

Employees Resistance

Resistance from employees, particularly teachers, is a significant challenge in implementing smart education systems that involve real-time monitoring. Overcoming this challenge requires providing incentives and improving communication through an integrated correspondence system within the smart education system, addressing employee concerns efficiently and promoting their satisfaction.

Use of Smart Systems

Teachers’ unfamiliarity with smart devices and smartphones, may resist the successful implementation of smart education systems. Training can help, but disinterest remains a concern. Adding a post-training assessment module to monitor employee understanding can address this challenge, allowing for rescheduling if scores are low.

Lack of Funds

Lack of funds is a major challenge in underdeveloped countries, where institutions struggle to afford basic facilities like classrooms and furniture. Implementing smart institutions faces additional obstacles due to limited budgets, particularly for complex systems like Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that require substantial funding. However, the education market is significant, and mass production of smart systems can help reduce costs.

Cultural Issues

Cultural resistance to capturing photos or videos, especially of girls, and parental restrictions on smart device usage can hinder the installation of cameras or sensors in educational institutions. However, smart systems can overcome these challenges by offering virtual classrooms that respect cultural values, allowing female students to attend classes without male teachers present.

Preparation for Parent Teacher Meeting (PTM) at Govt. High School Chapri, Punjab, Pakistan

Technology Addiction

Research studies indicate that children are highly addicted to mobile phones, posing a challenge in digitized education where students may prioritize various applications over learning. To address this, controlling and overcoming technology addiction is crucial to ensure effective learning. Embedding a learner monitoring module within the smart system can help monitor and regulate students’ viewing history, encouraging them to take control of their usage habits.

Digitizing Books

Digitizing the syllabus and creating animation videos for Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) requires substantial investments in cost, time, and expertise. To simplify the process, an intelligent system can be developed for teachers, enabling them to effortlessly create animated videos for learners without extensive technological skills. This system can be integrated into teachers’ applications, streamlining content management and enhancing educational material creation.


Training teachers in the smart system is costly and time-consuming, with no guarantee of acquiring the necessary expertise. To simplify the process, an embedded automated module can provide convenient and self-paced training for teachers within the smart education system. This module includes assessments and certification.

In conclusion, while smart education promises numerous advantages, overcoming these challenges and resistance is crucial to ensure its successful implementation and widespread adoption. With strategic planning and innovative solutions, smart education can pave the way for a more advanced and effective learning environment for students worldwide.

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Afzal Badshah, PhD
Age of Awareness

Dr Afzal Badshah focuses on academic skills, pedagogy (teaching skills) and life skills.