Illustration by Virginia Poltrack

Coroutines on Android (part II): getting started

Sean McQuillan
Android Developers
Published in
12 min readMay 2, 2019


This is part of a multi-part series about using Coroutines on Android. This post focuses on starting work and keeping track of work that has been started.

Other articles in this series:

Keeping track of coroutines

In part one, we explored the problems that coroutines are great at solving. As a recap, coroutines are a great solution to two common programming problems:

  1. Long running tasks are tasks that take too long to block the main thread.
  2. Main-safety allows you to ensure that any suspend function can be called from the main thread.

To solve these problems, coroutines build upon regular functions by adding suspend and resume. When all coroutines on a particular thread are suspended, the thread is free to do other work.

However, coroutines by themselves don’t help you keep track of the work that’s being done. It’s perfectly fine to have a large number of coroutines — hundreds or even thousands — and have all of them suspended at the same time. And, while coroutines are cheap, the work they perform is often expensive, like reading files or making network requests.

It’s quite difficult to keep track of one thousand coroutines manually using code. You could try to track all of them and manually ensure they complete or cancel, but code like this is tedious and error prone. If the code is not perfect, it will lose track of a coroutine, which is what I call a work leak.

A work leak is like a memory leak, but worse. It’s a coroutine that’s been lost. In addition to using memory, a work leak can resume itself to use CPU, disk, or even launch a network request.

A leaked coroutine can waste memory, CPU, disk, or even launch a network request that’s not needed.

To help avoid leaking coroutines, Kotlin introduced structured concurrency. Structured concurrency is a combination of language features and best practices that, when followed, help you keep track of all work running in coroutines.

On Android, we can use structured concurrency to do three things:

  1. Cancel work when it is no longer needed.
  2. Keep track of work while it’s running.
  3. Signal errors when a coroutine fails.

Lets dive into each of these and see how structured concurrency helps us make sure we never lose track of a coroutine and leak work.

Cancel work with scopes

In Kotlin, coroutines must run in something called a CoroutineScope. A CoroutineScope keeps track of your coroutines, even coroutines that are suspended. Unlike the Dispatchers we talked about in part one, it doesn’t actually execute your coroutines — it just makes sure you don’t lose track of them.

To ensure that all coroutines are tracked, Kotlin does not allow you to start a new coroutine without a CoroutineScope. You can think of a CoroutineScope as sort of like lightweight version of an ExecutorService with superpowers. It grants you the ability to start new coroutines which come with all that suspend and resume goodness we explored in part one.

A CoroutineScope keeps track of all your coroutines, and it can cancel all of the coroutines started in it. This fits well with Android development where you want to ensure that you clean up everything that was started by a screen when the user leaves.

A CoroutineScope keeps track of all your coroutines, and it can cancel all of the coroutines started in it.

Starting new coroutines

It’s important to note that you can’t just call a suspend function from anywhere. The suspend and resume mechanism requires that you switch from normal functions to a coroutine.

There are two ways to start coroutines, and they have different uses:

  1. launch builder will start a new coroutine that is “fire and forget” — that means it won’t return the result to the caller.
  2. async builder will start a new coroutine, and it allows you to return a result with a suspend function called await.

In almost all cases, the right answer for how to start a coroutine from a regular function is to use launch. Since the regular function has no way to call await (remember, it can’t call suspend functions directly) it doesn’t make much sense to use async as your main entry to coroutines. We’ll talk later about when it makes sense to use async.

You should instead use a coroutine scope to start a coroutine by calling launch.

scope.launch {
// This block starts a new coroutine
// "in" the scope.
// It can call suspend functions

You can think of launch as a bridge that takes your code from regular functions into a coroutines world. Inside of the launch body, you can call suspend functions and create main safety like we covered in the last post.

Launch is a bridge from regular functions into coroutines.

Warning: A big difference between launch and async is how they handle exceptions. async expects that you will eventually call await to get a result (or exception) so it won’t throw exceptions by default. That means if you use async to start a new coroutine it will silently drop exceptions.

Since launch and async are only available on a CoroutineScope, you know that any coroutine you create will always be tracked by a scope. Kotlin just doesn’t let you create an untracked coroutine, which goes a long way to avoid work leaks.

Start in the ViewModel

So if a CoroutineScope keeps track of all coroutines that are launched in it, and launch creates a new coroutine, where exactly should you call launch and put your scopes? And, when does it make sense to cancel all the coroutines started in a scope?

On Android, it often makes sense to associate a CoroutineScope with a user screen. This lets you avoid leaking coroutines or doing extra work for Activities or Fragments that are no longer relevant to the user. When the user navigates away from the screen, the CoroutineScope associated with the screen can cancel all work.

Structured concurrency guarantees when a scope cancels, all of its coroutines cancel.

When integrating coroutines with Android Architecture Components, you typically want to launch coroutines in the ViewModel. This is a natural place since that’s where most serious work starts — and you won’t have to worry about rotation killing all your coroutines.

To use coroutines in a ViewModel, you can use the viewModelScope extension property from lifecycle-viewmodel-ktx:2.1.0-alpha04.viewModelScope is on-track to be released in AndroidX Lifecycle (v2.1.0) and is currently in alpha. You can read more about how it works in @manuelvicnt’s blog post. As the library is currently in alpha, there may be bugs, and the APIs could change before the final release. If find any bugs, you can file them here.

Take a look at this example:

class MyViewModel(): ViewModel() {
fun userNeedsDocs() {
// Start a new coroutine in a ViewModel
viewModelScope.launch {

viewModelScope will automatically cancel any coroutine that is started by this ViewModel when it is cleared (when the onCleared() callback is called). This is typically the right behavior — if we haven’t fetched the docs, and the user has closed the app, we’re probably just wasting their battery completing the request.

And for more safety, a CoroutineScope will propagate itself. So, if a coroutine you start goes on to start another coroutine, they’ll both end up in the same scope. That means even when libraries that you depend on start a coroutine from your viewModelScope, you’ll have a way to cancel them!

Warning: Coroutines are cancelled cooperatively by throwing a CancellationException when the coroutine is suspended. Exception handlers that catch a top-level exception like Throwable will catch this exception. If you consume the exception in an exception handler, or never suspend, the coroutine will linger in a semi-canceled state.

So, when you need a coroutine to run as long as a ViewModel, use viewModelScope to switch from regular functions to coroutines. Then, since viewModelScope will automatically cancel coroutines for you, it’s totally fine to write an infinite loop here without creating leaks.

fun runForever() {
// start a new coroutine in the ViewModel
viewModelScope.launch {
// cancelled when the ViewModel is cleared
while(true) {
// do something every second

By using viewModelScope you’re able to ensure that all work, even this infinite loop, is cancelled when it is no longer needed.

Keep track of work

Launching one coroutine is good — and for a lot of code that’s really all you’ll ever need to do. Launch a coroutine, make a network request, and write the result to the database.

Sometimes, though, you need a bit more complexity. Say you wanted to do two network requests simultaneously (or at the same time) in a coroutine — to do that you’ll need to start more coroutines!

To make more coroutines, any suspend functions can start more coroutines by using another builder called coroutineScope or its cousin supervisorScope. This API is, honestly, a bit confusing. The coroutineScope builder and a CoroutineScope are different things despite only having one character difference in their name.

Launching new coroutines everywhere is one way to create potential work leaks. The caller may not know about the new coroutines, and if it doesn’t how could it keep track of the work?

To fix this, structured concurrency helps us out. Namely, it provides a guarantee that when a suspend function returns, all of its work is done.

Structured concurrency guarantees that when a suspend function returns, all of its work is done.

Here’s an example of using coroutineScope to fetch two documents:

suspend fun fetchTwoDocs() {
coroutineScope {
launch { fetchDoc(1) }
async { fetchDoc(2) }

In this example, two documents are fetched from the network simultaneously. The first one is fetched in a coroutine started with launch which is “fire and forget” — that means it won’t return the result to the caller.

The second document is fetched with async, so the document can be returned to the caller. This example is a little weird, since typically you would use async for both documents — but I wanted to show that you can mix and match launch and async depending on what you need.

coroutineScope and supervisorScope let you safely launch coroutines from suspend functions.

Note, though, that this code never explicitly waits for either of the new coroutines! It seems like fetchTwoDocs will return while the coroutines are running!

To make structured concurrency and avoid work leaks, we want to ensure that when a suspend function like fetchTwoDocs returns, all of its work is done. That means both of the coroutines it launches must complete before fetchTwoDocs returns.

Kotlin ensures that the work does not leak from fetchTwoDocs with the coroutineScope builder. The coroutineScope builder will suspend itself until all coroutines started inside of it are complete. Because of this, there’s no way to return from fetchTwoDocs until all coroutines started in the coroutineScope builder are complete.

Lots and lots of work

Now that we’ve explored keeping track of one and two coroutines, it’s time to go all-in and try to keep track of one thousand coroutines!

Take a look at the following animation:

Animation showing how a coroutineScope can keep track of one thousand coroutines.

This example shows making one thousand network request simultaneously. This is not recommend in real Android code — your app will use lots of resources.

In this code, we launch one thousand coroutines with launch inside a coroutineScope builder. You can see how things get wired up. Since we’re in a suspend function, some code somewhere must have used a CoroutineScope to create a coroutine. We don’t know anything about that CoroutineScope, it could be a viewModelScope or some other CoroutineScope defined somewhere else. No matter what calling scope it is, the coroutineScope builder will use it as the parent to the new scope it creates.

Then, inside the coroutineScope block, launch will start coroutines “in” the new scope. As the coroutines started by launch complete, the new scope will keep track of them. Finally, once all of the coroutines started inside the coroutineScope are complete, loadLots is free to return.

Note: the parent-child relationship between scopes and coroutines is created using Job objects. But you can often think of the relationship between coroutines and scopes without diving into that level.

coroutineScope and supervisorScope will wait for child coroutines to complete.

There’s a lot going on here under the hood — but what’s important is that using coroutineScope or supervisorScope you can launch a coroutine safely from any suspend function. Even though it will start a new coroutine, you won’t accidentally leak work because you’ll always suspend the caller until the new coroutine completes.

What’s really cool is coroutineScope will create a child scope. So if the parent scope gets cancelled, it will pass the cancellation down to all the new coroutines. If the caller was the viewModelScope, all one thousand coroutines would be automatically cancelled when the user navigated away from the screen. Pretty neat!

Before we move on to errors, it’s worth taking a moment to talk about supervisorScope vs. coroutineScope. The main difference is that a coroutineScope will cancel whenever any of its children fail. So, if one network request fails, all of the other requests are cancelled immediately. If instead you want to continue the other requests even when one fails, you can use a supervisorScope. A supervisorScope won’t cancel other children when one of them fails.

Signal errors when a coroutine fails

In coroutines, errors are signaled by throwing exceptions, just like regular functions. Exceptions from a suspend function will be re-thrown to the caller by resume. Just like with regular functions, you’re not limited to try/catch to handle errors and you can build abstractions to perform error handling with other styles if you prefer.

However, there are situations where errors can get lost in coroutines.

val unrelatedScope = MainScope()// example of a lost error
suspend fun lostError() {
// async without structured concurrency
unrelatedScope.async {
throw InAsyncNoOneCanHearYou("except")

Note this code is declaring an unrelated coroutine scope that will launch a new coroutine without structured concurrency. Remember at the beginning I said that structured concurrency is a combination of types and programming practices, and introducing unrelated coroutine scopes in suspend functions is not following the programming practices of structured concurrency.

The error is lost in this code because async assumes that you will eventually call await where it will rethrow the exception. However, if you never do call await, the exception will be stored forever waiting patiently waiting to be raised.

Structured concurrency guarantees that when a coroutine errors, its caller or scope is notified.

If you do use structured concurrency for the above code, the error will correctly be thrown to the caller.

suspend fun foundError() {
coroutineScope {
async {
throw StructuredConcurrencyWill("throw")

Since the coroutineScope will wait for all children to complete, it can also get notified when they fail. If a coroutine started by coroutineScope throws an exception, coroutineScope can throw it to the caller. Since we’re using coroutineScope instead of supervisorScope, it would also immediately cancel all other children when the exception is thrown.

Using structured concurrency

In this post, I introduced structured concurrency and showed how it makes our code fit well with Android ViewModel to avoid work leaks.

I also talked about how it makes suspend functions easier to reason about. Both by ensuring they complete work before they return, as well as ensuring they signal errors by surfacing exceptions.

If instead we used unstructured concurrency, it would be easy for coroutines to accidentally leak work that the caller didn’t know about. The work would not be cancellable, and it would not be guaranteed that exceptions would be rethrown. This would make our code more surprising, and possibly create obscure bugs.

You can create unstructured concurrency by introducing a new unrelated CoroutineScope (note the capital C), or by using a global scope called GlobalScope, but you should only consider unstructured concurrency in rare cases when you need the coroutine to live longer than the calling scope. It’s a good idea to then add structure yourself to ensure you keep track of the unstructured coroutines, handle errors, and have a good cancellation story.

Structured concurrency does take some getting used to if you have experience with unstructured concurrency. The structure and guarantees do make it safer and easier to interact with suspend functions. It’s a good idea to work with structured concurrency as much as possible, because it helps make code easier to read and much less surprising.

At the start of this post I listed three things that structured concurrency solves for us

  1. Cancel work when it is no longer needed.
  2. Keep track of work while it’s running.
  3. Signal errors when a coroutine fails.

To accomplish this structured concurrency gives us some guarantees about our code. Here are the guarantees of structured concurrency.

  1. When a scope cancels, all of its coroutines cancel.
  2. When a suspend fun returns, all of its work is done.
  3. When a coroutine errors, its caller or scope is notified.

Put together, the guarantees of structured concurrency make our code safer, easier to reason about, and allow us to avoid leaking work!

What’s next?

In this post we explored how to start coroutines on Android in a ViewModel and how to work with structured concurrency to make our code less surprising.

In the next post, we talk more about how to use coroutines in practical situations! Give it a read:



Sean McQuillan
Android Developers

Android Developer @Google