Illustration by Virginia Poltrack

Design Tools Suite UX enhancements in Android Studio 4.1

Paris Hsu
Paris Hsu
Jul 27, 2020 · 8 min read

The Design Tools Suite in Android Studio is a collection of tools that aims to support developers in effectively designing, prototyping, building, and debugging their apps. These tools include but are not limited to a Layout Editor, Navigation Editor, Motion Editor, Resource Manager, and Layout Inspector. With Android Studio 4.1, we’ve focused our efforts on the backlog of users’ (your) feedback to enhance these existing tools — as a result, we’ve refined interactions and created missing features. Here’s a round-up of what we’ve done — a closer look at the UX refinements mentioned in the What’s new in Design Tools Talk!

Layout editor

ConstraintHelpers such as Barriers and Guidelines were first introduced in ConstraintLayout 1.1 to allow multiple widgets to be referenced as input of an invisible view, and group-align them without code duplication. In 2.0, the helpers concept was extended: VirtualLayouts such as Flow and Groups were added to allow for simultaneously applying behaviors to all referenced widgets. For example, with Flow, views can be easily laid out horizontally or vertically with global adjustments of gaps and wrap styles.

In Android Studio 4.1, we wanted to make sure our tools support and optimize the experience and interaction of using these helpers in the IDE. Thus, we first mapped out the user journey from discovery to creation to manipulation, and then we set out to increase efficiency for every step of the journey. For discovery, we added a helpers section in Palette so that it’s easy to find and use available helpers.

Helper palette

For creation, you can now also select multiple views, and right-click to select a helper — we then automatically add the referenced id’s corresponding to what was selected.

Helper creation through multi-select

For manipulation, we wanted to make Flow’s functionality more accessible, so we expanded the property panel with commonly used attributes specific to Flow, such as icons for quick alignment and a section for rearranging the order of referenced id’s.

Helper manipulation through new attribute panel sections

Android Studio offers a variety of tools attributes, which are XML attributes in the android:tools namespace that enable design-time features (i.e., showing the layout of a fragment). These attributes are removed when you build your app and have no effect on APK size or runtime behavior — they are merely to aid in the design / development process.

For building UI, we know that tools:visibility and absolute positioning (tools:layout_editor_absoluteX and tools:layout_editor_absoluteY) are two widely used tools attributes because they allow designers to temporarily show/hide UI as well as to position views precisely in the Layout Editor before setting constraints on them. However, we observed in user studies that it is difficult to know when and if views are set with tools attributes, such that users were surprised by discrepancies between the Layout Editor’s preview and the app’s rendering on an emulator or physical device. For example, in the screenshot below, the images in the right column have absolute positioning, and even though they look nicely laid out in the Layout Editor preview, in the emulator they’re all superimposed on one another in the top left corner.

Discrepancy between the Layout Editor’s preview and the app’s rendering on an emulator due to tools attributes

To resolve this, we decided to add a toggle near the design surface in the Layout Editor to allow users to easily turn on/off tools:visibility and absolute positioning.

Using the new tools attributes toggle

With the toggle, our goal is to provide users with a more accurate / non-design-time rendering and increased awareness about when they’re using these tools attributes.

Visibility, as stated in the last section, is a very common and important attribute for a view. It’s particularly useful when you need to show/hide certain UIs based on different conditions or certain logic. For example, you may only want authenticated users to be able to see their user data. Thus, we wanted to optimize the visibility attribute by providing a quick way to easily set show/hide/gone visibility in the Layout Editor.

Using the new visibility controls on the component tree

Starting in 4.1, you will be able to use the visibility control picker in the component tree next to any view to quickly change it. This allows you to take one look at the tree and know how the views are shown based on visibility and change them according to whichever parts of the UI you would like to work on.

Component tree shows visibility status with icons

We included both the tools and android namespaces to accommodate different user needs. One thing to note here is that, during design-time, tools overrides android visibility, and thus this is reflected on the visibility controls as well — if you have a tools:visibility set, it will take precedence on the UI. For instance, in the screenshot below, the student image has an android:visibility = visible and tools:visibility = gone, and you can see that the tools visibility takes precedence.

Tools overrides android visibility

We all recognize the power of keyboard shortcuts in boosting productivity and efficiency for development. In Studio 4.1, we performed an audit of all the keyboard shortcuts in the Design Tools Suite and registered them in Preferences > Keymap, allowing you to discover, change, and edit the shortcuts to best fit your work style.

Keymap preference includes design editors’ shortcuts

We’ve heard feedback from developers asking for more precision when manipulating transform attributes on a view. To make it easier to fine tune your view’s transformation, we added a visualizer and sliders to help with 3D rotation of views. On the attribute panel, once you’ve selected a view, you can use the controls under “Transform” to make adjustments.

Using the transform panel to rotate the service dog image

Resource manager

Back in Android studio 3.6, we introduced the Color picker resource tab, which helps you quickly update color resource values in your app. The picker pattern was very well received since the interaction here provided a seamless transition from something textual (code) to something visual (colors) — users can stay in context within their code editor while using this graphical user interface (GUI) accelerator at the same time. Thus, in 4.1, we applied the same concept to Drawables — now when you have a drawable resource in your file, you will find a gutter icon that allows you to quickly change drawable resources. Moreover, clicking on “browse” will open the resource dialog allowing for more extensive search.

Drawable picker

This update is perhaps not noticeable visually but is nevertheless significant. We received complaints about discrepancies between the Material icons on Material.io and those in our Vector Asset wizard. This was due to misalignment between Studio’s release cadence and updates to Material. To tackle this, we streamlined the process so that now every time Material updates their icon library, the Vector Asset wizard will also automatically update the library in the background. You can now expect we will always have the latest Material icons in the wizard! 🎉

Navigation editor

Split View was introduced as a new way of switching editing modes for design files in Android Studio 3.6, and this created opportunities for us to optimize the side-by-side view for navigation files and the Navigation Editor. One of those optimizations is to use the component tree structure to represent the destination graph in the Navigation Editor. This way, users can see all their destinations (including nested ones) and actions at a glance, and they map 1:1 to the code in split mode.

Navigation destination as tree in split view

As a side note, this was beneficial for the health of our code base as it reuses common components across all our design tools.

Navigation 2.3.0 introduces two new attribute types for deeplinks: MIME and Action. To align the tools functionalities with that of the library, we added them to the creation dialog for deeplinks in the Navigation Editor, with autocomplete and validation support.

Add Deep Link dialog with new attributes

Motion editor

MotionLayout supports different types of keyframes, and one of most commonly used types is Position keyframes (<KeyPosition …/>), which allows developers to modify the path of a widget at a given time during the animation. With the Motion Editor, introduced in 4.0, users can directly manipulate these keyframes by dragging them directly on the surface. However, a problem with this workflow is that, depending on how the keyframe is set up, the attributes applied to the keyframe can mean different things. For example, dragging the keyframe 20% to the left, there is no context of whether this is 20% relative to the path or 20% relative to the parent. To solve this, in 4.1 we added an overlay of the coordinate system as well as axis ghost objects on the design surface during drag, so that every time developers want to manually edit the keyframes, they can better understand their bounding, axis, and direction.

Showing position keyframe grid and value overlay

Similar to the Transform panel in the Layout Editor mentioned above, we have heard feedback from developers about how it’s difficult to specify Transition curves with pure numbers. Thus, in 4.1, we added support for a GUI curve editor in the Motion Editor, allowing developers to perfect the curves with visualization and control handles.

Using the transition curve editor

We hope that you are excited to try out these new improvements! We are constantly gathering feedback and applying them to improve our tools. The goal of the Design Tools Suite is to support, supplement, and boost your coding experience — to find areas where it makes sense to provide visual or GUI support. The learnings we uncovered here will also be applied to tools we build for Jetpack Compose. For instance, these pickers experiences (i.e., visibility toggle, gutter drawable pickers) are a form factor that we can further explore, since they are context-based, non-distracting, and provide a unique way to apply design tooling to the app development process.

As always, if you encounter any issues while using these tools, or have an idea for new features that can improve your productivity, please file a bug. We will continue to optimize the editors’ performance, fix bugs, and incorporate your suggestions and feedback.

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