Material Theming with MDC: Color

Color theming on Android using the MDC library

Nick Rout
Android Developers
Published in
9 min readAug 25, 2020


This article is also posted on the Material Design blog.

Material Theming is a way to customize Material Components to align with your brand. A Material theme includes color, typography and shape parameters which you can adjust to get near-infinite variations of the components — all while maintaining their core anatomy and usability.

On Android, Material Theming can be implemented using the Material Components (MDC) library, from version 1.1.0 onwards. If you’re looking to migrate from the Design Support Library or MDC 1.0.0, take a look at our migration guide.

This article will be focusing on color theming.

Color attributes

Material Design provides 12 color “slots” that make up the overall palette of your app. Each of these have a design term (eg. “Primary”) along with a corresponding color attribute that can be overridden in your app theme (eg. colorPrimary). There are default “baseline” values for both your light theme and dark theme.

MDC color attributes with light baseline values
MDC color attributes with dark baseline values

Material Components use these color attributes to tint elements of the widgets.

Color attributes used by a button

They are applied with eg.


in layouts and widget styles.

You might recognise some of these color attributes like colorPrimary. That’s because a few of them are inherited from AppCompat and the platform, while the rest have been newly introduced by MDC. The table below illustrates the origin of each attribute.

Picking colors

Figuring out which color values to use for each slot may be the responsibility of a designer, or derived from your product’s brand. However, it’s still useful to know about the role of each color, the relationship between them, and how to meet accessibility requirements:

  • colorPrimary and colorSecondary represent the colors of your brand
  • colorPrimaryVariant and colorSecondaryVariant are lighter or darker shades of your brand colors
  • colorSurface is used for “sheets” of material (like cards and bottom sheets)
  • android:colorBackground is the window background color of your app
  • colorError is, as the name suggests, for errors and warnings
  • The various “On” colors (colorOnPrimary, colorOnSecondary, colorOnSurface, etc.) are used to tint foreground content (such as text and icons) displayed on top of the other colors. They need to meet accessibility requirements and have sufficient contrast against the colors they’re displayed on.

Color tools

Material Design provides useful tools for previewing colors and determining suitable variants and “On” colors:

  • Material color tool: Get light/dark variants of your primary and secondary colors as well as the appropriate “On” color. Preview how these will look in sample screens.
  • Material palette generator: Generate a full tonal palette (shade 50–900) for a color. Get suggestions of complementary, analogous, and triadic colors.
Material color tool (left) and Material palette generator (right)

Things to consider

  • You almost always want to override colorPrimary, colorSecondary and their variants, unless your brand happens to use the exact same purple/teal hex values as the baseline Material Theme.
  • You don’t have to override all colors. Some, such as colorSurface, use neutral colors so relying on the default values is perfectly fine.
  • If your brand does not define any kind of secondary or accent color, it’s ok to use a single color for both colorPrimary and colorSecondary. The same can be said of variants (eg. colorPrimary and colorPrimaryVariant could be the same).
  • Despite being separate attributes, there’s an inherent link between a color, its variant (if one exists) and its “On” color (eg. colorPrimary, colorPrimaryVariant and colorOnPrimary). Overriding one means checking the others to see if they make sense and meet accessibility requirements.

Additional color slots

Your design system may call for additional color slots outside of the 12 that Material Theming specifies. Thankfully this is relatively easy to do on Android by declaring a color attr:

Color resources

Color values are defined as <color> resources. For custom colors we recommend two approaches to help separate concerns, and create a single source of truth for color theming values in your app:

  • Store all <color>s in a single res/values/colors.xml file
  • Use literal names for <color>s that describe the value as opposed to assigning semantic meaning:
  • Doing so encourages the use of ?attr/ references when using colors, which is a recommended approach for supporting dark themes
  • Use names like green_500 or brand_name_yellow
  • Avoid semantic names like color_primary

Overriding colors in an app theme

Let’s take a look at how you can add your chosen color palette to your app theme by overriding relevant attributes.

First, we recommend setting up your theme(s) to gracefully handle light and dark color palettes while reducing repetition with base themes. For more on this topic, take a look at Chris Banes’ article on dark theme as well as the “Developing Themes with Style” talk given by him and Nick Butcher.

Once set up, override the color attributes you wish to change in your light and dark themes:

Material Components will respond to theme-level color overrides:

Material Design components responding to theme-level color overrides

Color reusability and best practice

There are many circumstances which involve using colors in layouts, drawables, styles, and elsewhere. We’re going to go through some approaches to make your code as reusable as possible, regardless of the color values specified in your app theme.

Prefer attrs

The most important thing we suggest is to use ?attr/ color references. This is the recommended approach to creating reusable layouts and default styles that support multiple themes like light/dark.

Take a look at Nick Butcher’s “Android Styling: Prefer Theme Attributes” article for further explanations and some exceptions to the rule.

Colors with alpha

There are times when you may want to use one of the colors from your MDC theme with an alpha value eg. colorPrimary at 60%. Examples of this include touch ripples and checked state overlays.

Android <color> resources do allow for an alpha channel:

<!-- 60% alpha = 99 -->
<color name=”navy_700_alpha_60”>#9937596D</color>

However, with this approach we need to maintain separate color resources per alpha value. It also means we can’t use these as ?attr/s and goes against our single source of truth approach mentioned above.

Rather, we suggest taking advantage of ColorStateLists stored in your res/color directory. A CSL can have a single item which includes a color reference and an alpha value, which is perfect for our use case:

Using these might cause you to raise an eyebrow — they’re referenced with the @color/primary_60 notation — but this is fine considering we’re dealing with a CSL that itself uses ?attr/ to reference the underlying theme color.

Colors per state and theme overlays

ColorStateLists are more commonly used to switch between colors (and alpha values) depending on the state of the view. MDC widgets use this generously for disabled states, hovered vs. pressed states and so on. Here’s an example of a button’s background tint from the MDC source code:

Keeping with the button example, suppose you want to change the main background tint from primary to secondary:

Primary button (left) and secondary button (right)

You could copy the above source file into your codebase and change colorPrimary to colorSecondary, but this is tedious and becomes problematic if the source code happens to change.

A better way to do this is to use theme overlays. Nick Butcher goes into detail about this in his “Android Styling: Themes Overlay” post. Essentially we can replace the value of a specific theme attribute (colorPrimary in our case) for a particular View or ViewGroup and any descendants (in our case a button).

A basic theme overlay can be seen below. Note the empty parent, which ensures we only override the attrs we wish to change:

When applying theme overlays in XML, there are two options to consider:

  • android:theme: Works with all widgets, doesn’t work in default styles
  • app:materialThemeOverlay: Only works with MDC widgets (or in custom views using MaterialThemeOverlay#wrap), does work in default styles

API compatibility

Platform support for ?attr/s in CSLs and elsewhere was only added in API 23. If your minSdk is below this, don’t worry: compatibility classes do exist! In fact, both MDC and AppCompat widgets make use of these under-the-hood so no additional work is required when using them.

For scenarios where you need to use CSLs programmatically, use AppCompatResources:

val primary60 = AppCompatResources.getColorStateList(
context, R.color.primary60

Color in MDC widgets

Earlier we said that MDC widgets respond to overrides of theme level color attributes. But how would you know, for example, that a button uses colorPrimary as its background tint and colorOnPrimary for its icon and text label? Let’s take a look at a few options.

Build a Material Theme

Build a Material Theme is an interactive Android project that lets you create your own Material theme by customizing values for color, typography, and shape. It also includes a catalog of all theming parameters and components. Determining which widgets respond to changes in theme color attributes can be done by:

Changes in color values in Build a Material Theme

MDC developer docs

The MDC developer docs have recently been refreshed. As part of this we’ve included attribute tables which include design terminology and default values used in the library. For example, check out the “Anatomy and key properties” sections of the updated buttons doc.

MDC button dev doc attribute table with default color values

Source code

Inspecting the MDC source code is arguably the most reliable approach. MDC uses default styles to achieve Material Theming so it’s a good idea to look at these as well as any styleable attrs and the java file(s). For example, check out the styles, attrs and java file for MaterialButton.

MDC button default style with color values

Color in custom views

Your app may include custom widgets you’ve built or gotten from an existing library. Making these views responsive to Material Theming is useful when using them alongside standard MDC widgets. Let’s take a look at what to keep in mind when supporting color theming for custom widgets.

Use MDC attrs in <declare-styleable>s and default styles

Allowing your custom views to be styled involves using a <declare-styleable>. Reusing attr names from MDC can be useful for consistency. Default styles that use <declare-styleable>s can also reference MDC theme color attrs for their values:

MaterialColors utility class

Resolving theme color attrs programmatically can be done with a handy new MDC class — MaterialColors — which may also be useful for custom views:

OK Google, what’s next?

We’ve been through the process of implementing color theming in your Android app using MDC. Be sure to check out our other posts in this series on why we recommend using MDC, type theming, shape theming, dark theme, and Material’s motion system.

As always, we encourage you to file bug reports and feature requests on GitHub. Also be sure to check out our Android companion example apps.

If you’ve successfully implemented color theming or if you’re having trouble doing so, leave a comment below or reach out to us on Twitter @MaterialDesign and @AndroidDev.



Nick Rout
Android Developers

Principal Android Engineer at GoDaddy | Ex-Google | Google Developer Expert for Android